Deterioration of Nemrut sandstone and development of its conservation treatments

Akoğlu, Kiraz Göze
In this study, it was aimed to develop conservation methodologies for the historic sandstones using the case of Nemrut Mount Monument to help their survival in open air conditions. The main conservation approach of this study was holistic as well as aiming at minimum intervention targeted to the problem areas. The most important weathering forms of Nemrut Sandstones were material loss due to loss of scales and granular disintegration as well as detachments by scales, back weathering due to loss of scales, cracking, granular disintegration, rounding/notching and discoloration/biological deposition. Deterioration mechanisms of sandstones were studied on deteriorated and relatively sound sandstones by nondestructive methods of UPV and QIRT, and by microstructural analyses using thin section, XRD and SEM-EDX analyses. In addition, the changes in physical and physcomechanical properties such as, color, bulk density, effective porosity, hydric, hygric and thermal dilatation and CEC of clays were determined. Sandstone deterioration was caused by swelling of clay minerals distributed in their matrix and clay accumulations between the detaching scales. Considerable thermal dilatation characteristics was also an important decay factor. Iron oxides caused discoloration at the surfaces, their phase changes was thought to be important in decay. The use of surfactant DAA, to control clay swelling was found to decrease the hydric dilatation by 40%. The consolidation treatments with nanosilica and silicate dispersions namely Funcosil KSE500STE, SytonX3, KSE300 and KSE100 have improved physicomechanical properties as followed by UPV measurements and decreased hydric dilatation. Their long term behaviour needed to be further investigated.


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Stocks of traditionally targeted fish species are in decline in the north eastern Levant Sea due to overfishing during recent decades, while catch statistics show a simultaneous increase in landings of commercially less valuable small pelagic species. Moreover, the number of species in the eastern Mediterranean is increasing due to Lessepsian migration and the response of native species to the continuous migration of lessepsian species is in question. Additionally, warming associated with climate change is ...
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The use of non-destructive testing (NDT) methods was needed for the conservation studies of historic timber structures. The aim of this study was to develop combined use of ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) measurements and infrared (IR) thermography, together with visual analyses for soundness assessment of timber. An important timber structure in Ankara, Aslanhane Mosque and traditional timber dwellings, in Ayaş and İstiklal District were selected for in-situ analyses. Representative laboratory samples such...
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Coastal urbanization, heavy nutrient/pollutant loads due to intense anthropogenic activities and unsustainable fisheries have been threatening life-support system of marine environment and getting more drastic with the climatic variations and its impacts. Changes in sea surface temperatures and related dynamical processes have been threatening bottom-up / top-down control of marine food webs via variations in primary production and changes in biogeographic and temporal responses of thermophilic species. All...
Spatial information systems for conservation of historic buildings case study : Doğanlar Church İzmir
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Conservation of historic buildings requires comprehensive and correct information of buildings to be analyzed in conservation decision making process in a systematic and rational approach. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are advantageous in such cases which can be defined as computer based systems for handling geographical and spatial data. GIS have the potential to support the conservation decision making process with their storing, analyzing and monitoring capabilities. Therefore, information syste...
Citation Formats
K. G. Akoğlu, “Deterioration of Nemrut sandstone and development of its conservation treatments,” Ph.D. - Doctoral Program, Middle East Technical University, 2011.