Microarray applications for determination of the effects of emodin on breast cancer cell lines

Ekenel Qomi, Emilia
Cancer is a genetic disease that is characterized by uncontrolled cells growth. Breast cancer is a type of cancer originating from breast tissue. Some breast cancers are sensitive to hormones such as estrogen which makes it possible to treat them by blocking the effects of these hormones in the target tissues. These require less aggressive treatment than hormone negative cancers. Breast cancers without hormone receptors, are higher-risk, and are treated more aggressively. The aim of our study is to investigate the effect of emodin on MCF-7 which is ER (estrogen receptor) positive, and MDA-MB-231 (ER negative) cancerous cell lines. Emodin which is a phytoestrogen component, extracted from rheum (genus) plant, has been reported to suppress the growth of tumor in some clinical situation, and it’s found that emodin induced apoptosis through the decrease of Bcl-2/Bax ratio and the increase of cytoplasm cytochrome c concentration in human breast cancer Bcap-37 cells. Comparing the effect of emodin between ER positive and ER negative cells at the molecular level was investigated by Microarray analysis of gene expressions using Affymetrix Human Genome U133 plus 2.0 Array. The microarray data analysis was performed by using BRB-Array Tools, v.4.2.0. GST and its classes; Alpha, Mu, Pi, Theta, Sigma, Omega, Zeta and Kappa is our interested genes because of its role in regulating susceptibility to cancer, by their ability to metabolize reactive electrophilic intermediates to usually less reactive and more water soluble glutathione conjugates. And also its have a role in detoxifying the damage caused by oxidative stress which is a result of the radiotherapy. v The differentially expressed genes from emodin treated and untreated control breast cancer cell lines were compared after normalization and filtering and annotated, it was shown that the top 10 highly (significantly) varied genes belong to the biological processes such as (namely) cell cycle, cell division, cell proliferation, mitosis and meiosis, this insure the relation of emodin to the cell growth processes in the cancerous cells. The analysis of the change on the cell growth confirmed the anti-tumor effect of emodin. About the effect of emodin treatment on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cancerous cell lines separately; Both cells its significant genes was belong to cell growth biological processes, in MCF-7 cells in-addition other biological processes was shown, for example; stimulus to estradoil response, and the metabolism of xenobiotic by cytochrome p450, so CYP1A1 gene code for a protein which is used in emodin metabolism. The varied gene number was nearly 4400 gene from the scatter plot result in MCF-7 cells while in MDA-MB-231 cells it was nearly 3400 gene, these result insured the effect of emodin as a phytoestrogenic component as MCF-7 cells are ER positive cells, so emodin bind to the ER in MCF-7 cells and affected more gene number than MDA-MB-231. More number of GST enzyme classes changed in MCF-7 cells than MDA-MB-231, and the effect of emodin as anti-cancer showed different change of GST genes between MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. The results confirmed by network analysis done, to find the most related genes to our top 10 regulated gene list, and these genes were analyzed; most of them where in our gene list, and their regulation after emodin treatment analyzed and the result was supported to emodin as anti-tumor and phytoestrogenic component.
Citation Formats
E. Ekenel Qomi, “Microarray applications for determination of the effects of emodin on breast cancer cell lines,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2011.