Evolutionary relationships among Astragalus species native to Turkey

Dizkırıcı, Ayten
Evolutionary relationships within and among three Astragalus sections (Incani DC., Hypoglottidei DC., and Dissitiflori DC.) that were native to Turkey were inferred from variations of nucleotide sequences of both chloroplast and nuclear genome regions. In the current study, Fifty-six species included in the three Astragalus sections were utilized to figure out phylogenetic relationships and estimate evolutionary divergence time based on DNA sequence of trnL intron (trnL5’-L3’) , trnL3’-F(GAA) (trnL-F intergenic spacer), trnV intron, matK (maturase kinase) cpDNA (chloroplast) and ITS (internal transcribed spacer) nDNA (nuclear) regions. Fifty-six Astragalus species with their replicas and one Cicer species as outgroup were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction amplification and DNA sequencing methods. Eleven unknown samples were also used in the current study to understand their section and species name. The results of the study indicated that unknown A35 and A52 samples could be named as A. dasycarpus, while unknown A65 and A66 samples as A. ovatus and lastly unknown A2 sample as A. nitens or A. aucheri. Section of unknown A3, A16, A20, A108, A109 and A110 samples were determined as Incani, but the exact species identification of these samples were not possible because of their close phylogenetic associations with more than one species. Highest genetic diversity was observed when the DNA sequences of ITS nrDNA (nuclear ribosomal) region comprising three subregions as ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 was used, while the lowest one was calculated when DNA sequence of trnL-F cpDNA region was analyzed. The genetic divergence between Incani and Dissitiflori sections was highest whereas between Hypoglottidei and Dissitiflori was lowest based on all used regions. To figure out phylogenetic relationships among Astragalus species distributed in Turkey and in other regions of the World, DNA sequences of studied regions of foreign samples were collected from the NCBI database and were evaluated with DNA sequence of Turkish species used in the curent study. The Iranian samples either scattered in the phylogenetic tree or attached to our samples externally. South and North American samples (New World Astragalus or Neo Astragalus group) were nested within a different subcluster, which was located in the main cluster produced by samples of Old World Astragalus group (Turkish samples). With these results, we can say that New World Astragalus group is monophyletic and diverged from Old World Astragalus group. Evolutionary divergence time for Astragalus genus was estimated as about 12.5 - 14.5 million years (Ma), and that of New World Astragalus group as 5.0 - 4.0 Ma when rates of nucleotide substitutions of trnL intron and matK cpDNA regions were analyzed. In addition to evolutionary divergence time estimation for Astragalus and New World Astragalus group, divergence times among used three sections of the genus were also calculated by using DNA sequences of trnL, trnV intron and matK cpDNA regions and results indicated that Hypoglottidei and Dissitiflori sections diverged about 5.0-7.0 million years later than Incani section.
Citation Formats
A. Dizkırıcı, “Evolutionary relationships among Astragalus species native to Turkey,” Ph.D. - Doctoral Program, Middle East Technical University, 2012.