Spatio-temporal ecology, habitat use and population size of brown bears (ursus arctos) in Yusufeli, Turkey

Ambarlı, Hüseyin
Brown bear is the largest mammal in Turkey and its main distribution lies in the Black Sea and Eastern Anatolia Regions. Its basic ecology is almost unknown in Turkey, except for a limited number of studies. This study aims to determine the spatio-temporal ecology and habitat use of brown bears in the Kaçkar Mountains, and to estimate their population size in the Özgüven Valley and Yusufeli, both firsts for Turkey. The study area is primarily covered with conifer and oak stands, but sparse mixed shrubland occurs in the Mediterranean climate influenced lower parts. GPS-GSM telemetry on seven captured bears (5 males and 2 females) was the main field technique used in this study. Other methods include monitoring via camera trapping, visual direct observations, and counting cubs of the year. Bears were fitted with GPS-GSM collars and tracked for 3 to 603 days. Mean home range size (HRS) was calculated by 95% kernel and MCP estimators for three different samples sizes.95% MCP for all positions produced a home range size of 19.91 ± 8.89 sq. km. for females, and 130.68 ± 102.95 for males. On average, males and females move at rates of 199 m/h and 129 m/h, respectively. Males hibernate around 140 days whereas females around 150 days and at lower elevations than males. According to camera trapping results, bears are generally active at twilight whereas activity data loggers produced disparate results for tracked bears. Resting patterns showed that bears may also rest at midnight. Estimated population density per 100 km2. is 24.50 ± 1.74 individual using the Fcub method and 23.85 ± 2.51 using the mark–resight method. Captured bears indicated nonrandom distribution on habitat use and selected productive croplands and shrublands than other types of vegetation. Brown bear HRS in the Kaçkars is smaller than reported from most countries. The large female-male HRS difference is probably due to polygamous mating system, sexual dimorphism, hard mast availability, high population density, and female’s habitat exclusivity as a result of high tolerance by the local people in contrast with most northern countries. Although primary productivity is used to explain high population density and small HRS in other countries, the low productivity in the study area cannot explain the observed density and HRS difference. These findings will construct a scientific basis for brown bear management and conservation in Turkey.


Revision of Vicia L. (Leguminosae) in the Central Anatolia, Turkey
Binzat, Okan Kaan; Doğan, Musa; Department of Biology (2012)
In this revisional study based on the the genus Vicia in Central Anatolia large quantities of data have been compilled from specimens representing the group of the taxa being studied. These data were then synthesized to make taxon descriptions, keys, geographical distributions and ecological preferences. Since 2009, about 700 specimens have been collected from Central Anatolia and examined as the research materials. In addition, a large number of specimens have also been studied in the following herbaria AN...
Status and management of brown bears in Turkey
Can, OE; Togan, İnci Zehra (Ursus, 2004-01-01)
The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is the largest carnivore in Turkey. Its present distribution is mainly confined to the intact natural habitats of the Black Sea and Eastern Anatolian regions. Forest fragmentation and direct persecution by humans have resulted in population declines in other regions during the last50 years. Human-bear conflicts are more often observed in the eastern Black Sea than other areas within Turkey, but the species does not seriously threatenhumans in Turkey. Turkish authorities have no...
Quality Assessment of the Armourstones for Some Black Sea Rubble Mound Breakwaters, Turkey
Ozden, U. A.; Topal, Tamer (2007-01-01)
The Black Sea coastline is a hazardous region in Turkey, especially in winter, due to the dominant wave action. Therefore, rubble mound breakwaters used as ship shelters are vital structures, especially for the fishermen. Construction of the breakwater requires good quality, durable armourstones. Due to the nature of the rubble mound breakwaters, armourstones of various sizes and types are used in the construction of these structures. The deterioration of these armourstones with time may result in the failu...
Behavioral changes observed in Black Sea anchovy and its possible causes
Akkuş, Gizem; Gücü, Ali Cemal (2018-12-10)
The Black Sea anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus ponticus) is a migratory species spawning and overwintering at two opposite ends of the Black Sea. It has been reported that the species may display significant alteration in their migration routes and in their spawning grounds. That, in turn, affects the stock and the fishery on this species noticeably. This study focuses on these alterations by comparing the age, length and egg-size distributions of the anchovies sampled within the Turkish Exclusive Economic Z...
Pseudophleum anatolicum, a New Endemic Species of Pseudophleum (Poaceae) from East Anatolia, Turkey
Doğan, Musa; Sinan, Ali (2015-07-01)
Pseudophleum anatolicum (Poaceae: Poeae), a new species collected from Bingol Province in East Anatolia, Turkey, is described and illustrated as the second species of the genus ever discovered. The new species is distinguished from Pseudophleum gibbum by its larger spikelets and floral parts, rather longer acuminate ligules and anthers, as well as its phytogeography.
Citation Formats
H. Ambarlı, “Spatio-temporal ecology, habitat use and population size of brown bears (ursus arctos) in Yusufeli, Turkey,” Ph.D. - Doctoral Program, Middle East Technical University, 2012.