Investigation of occurrence and fate of biocides in wastewater treatment plants and surface waters

Yavuz, Merve
Biocides are widely used as a preservative or as an antiseptic agent in consumer care products such as toothpaste, mouthwash, and soaps, as well as in household cleaners and even in textiles due to their high antimicrobial effectiveness. The usage of this compounds results in discharge to wastewater treatment plants and so into surface waters. Their existence in the environment is of importance due to their negative effects on aquatic environment microorganisms and human health in terms of occurrence in surface waters and their fate in wastewater treatment plants. In this scope, this study focuses on occurrence and fate of selected biocides, namely triclosan (TCS) and chlorhexidine (CHD), in wastewater treatment plants and in surface waters. It was aimed to determine the biocides levels in surface water and wastewater in Turkey. For the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) studies, several WWTPs with different process configurations, namely, Tatlar WWTP, METU WWTP, Kayseri WWTP and Antalya WWTPs were selected. Composite wastewater samples were taken from various points along the WWTPs on a seasonally basis for one year period. For the surface water part, samples were taken monthly from three different sources with different pollution levels, namely, Kesikköprü Reservoir, Çamlıdere Reservoir and Eymir Lake for one year period. All water samples were analyzed for their biocide level using liquid chromatography, following solid phase cartridge extraction. As a result of analyses, TCS concentration in surface water samples was detected as in the range of 0.65-11.15 ng/L, 0.86-48.96 ng/L and 0.86-757.7 ng/L for clean, moderately polluted and polluted water sources respectively. The recovery of solid phase extraction analyses for TCS was achieved as %92. CHD concentration was determined as in the range of < 1.33-5.31 ng/L for surface water samples and the recovery of extraction were calculated as %96 for CHD. The concentration of TCS in wastewater samples was measured as in the range of 1.77-94.47 ng/L and 1.40-15.09 ng/L for influent and effluent samples respectively. These ranges became 1.39-10.45 ng/L and <1.32-2.44 ng/L for CHD. The highest concentrations of biocides were observed in sludge samples with concentrations of 1117-3687 μg/kg and 510-2742 μg/kg for TCS and CHD. Biocide removal efficiency of primary and biological treatment together was reported as % 67.5±8.2 in January 2012 Tatlar WWTP analyses.
Citation Formats
M. Yavuz, “Investigation of occurrence and fate of biocides in wastewater treatment plants and surface waters,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2013.