Synthesis of boron and zirconium co-doped titanium dioxide nanopowders by the sol-gel technique /

Ağartan, Lütfi
Effects of water/Ti precursor molar ratio (R ratio) and calcination regime on the photocatalytic properties of undoped, boron (B) doped, zirconium (Zr) doped, and B and Zr co-doped TiO2 powders synthesized by sol-gel process were researched. Undoped powders were synthesized for R ratio of 1, 3, 5, 10, 30, and 50 while doped and co-doped powders were synthesized for R ratio of 50. Undoped powders were calcined at 300, 400, and 500oC for 1, 2, and 3 h while doped and co-doped powders were calcined at 300 and 500oC for 1 h. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that doped and undoped powders composed of only anatase crystals, except the undoped powders synthesized for low R ratio calcined at 500oC. Rietveld analyses suggested that B and Zr were successfully doped into the crystal structure of TiO2 and changed the lattice parameters. Scanning electron microscopy investigations revealed that all powders were in the range of 15 to 40 nm in size and were highly agglomerated. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements showed that all powders had band gap energy of around 3.2 eV and their reflectance could be shifted to visible light region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Upon B and Zr co-doping better methylene blue degradation was achieved in UV light and daylight. The improvement in photocatalytic performance due to co-doping was attributed to the changes in structural and morphological features.


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The aim of this study was to synthesize magnetic Fe3O4 chitosan nanoparticles (m-Fe3O4-CNs) by ionic gelation method and use them as adsorbent for the removal of Bromothymol Blue (BB) from aqueous solutions. Also, the effect of various parameters on the preparation of m-Fe3O4-CNs was investigated in this study. The nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and ...
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In this study, two new pyrazolium based tunable aryl alkyl ionic liquids, 2-ethyl-1-(4-methylphenyl)-3,5- dimethylpyrazolium tetrafluoroborate (3a) and 1-(4-methylphenyl)-2-pentyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazolium tetrafluoroborate (3b), were synthesized via three-step reaction and characterized. The removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution has been investigated using the synthesized salts as an extractant and methylene chloride as a solvent. The obtained results show that MB was extracted from aqueous sol...
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Citation Formats
L. Ağartan, “Synthesis of boron and zirconium co-doped titanium dioxide nanopowders by the sol-gel technique /,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2014.