Subtyping of salmonella isolated from human clinical and animal non-clinical cases, as well as different food samples using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) /

Bulut, Ece
Salmonella is one of the most reported pathogens in foodborne outbreaks worldwide. In order to ensure safety of foods, farm-to-fork surveillance and control systems must be utilized. Development of numerous typing methods have improved the ability to detect salmonellosis outbreaks, enabling to trace the contaminated source from farm to fork. Facilitating prevention and regulation of techniques, knowledge of the epidemiology, genetics and ecology of Salmonella infections depend on the information provided by typing methods. In this study a phenotypic subtyping method, serotyping, and the current “gold standard” molecular subtyping method for bacterial pathogens, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used for characterization of 59 isolates of food origin, 53 isolates of animal origin and 50 clinical human isolates collected from Şanlıurfa region. Salmonella was prevalent mostly in chicken and offal samples (58.3 %), while Salmonella isolates from positive samples were much diverse in animal feces. Paratyphi B was the main serovar recorded for clinical human isolates; serovars Enteritidis, Typhimurium and Kentucky were recovered from all three sources. Having the most diversity from both typing methods, 53 animal isolates were represented by 13 subsp. enterica serovars and subspecies diarizonae and salamae; moreover, 28 PFGE types were observed. For all isolates, PFGE (SID: 0.975) represented a higher discriminatory power with respect to serotyping (SID: 0.915); serovar Montevideo had the most variation with 8 different PFGE types. The results were uploaded to a publicly available databanks (Food Microbe Tracker: and Pathogen Detector:; therefore, the information could be useful for investigations on farm-to fork chain, as well as for evolution, ecology and transmission of Salmonella in Turkey. From our knowledge, this is the first study reporting Salmonella diversity through farm to fork chain in the same period of time and at the same location in Turkey.


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Salmonella enterica is a bacterial pathogen whose mechanism of infection is usually through food sources. The pathogen proteins are translocated into the host cells to change the host signaling mechanisms either by activating or inhibiting the host proteins. In order to obtain a more complete view of the biological processes and the signaling networks and to reconstruct the temporal signaling network of the human host, we have used two network modeling approaches, the Prize-collecting Steiner Forest (PCSF) ...
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Salmonella enterica is a bacterial pathogen that usually infects its host through food sources. Translocation of the pathogen proteins into the host cells leads to changes in the signaling mechanism either by activating or inhibiting the host proteins. Given that the bacterial infection modifies the response network of the host, a more coherent view of the underlying biological processes and the signaling networks can be obtained by using a network modeling approach based on the reverse engineering principl...
Citation Formats
E. Bulut, “Subtyping of salmonella isolated from human clinical and animal non-clinical cases, as well as different food samples using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) /,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2014.