Development of functional cakes to be baked in microwave-infrared combination oven

Özkahraman, Betül Canan
The main objective of this study was to develop functional cake formulations to be baked in the microwave-infrared (MW-IR) combination oven by using legume flours. It was also aimed to compare quality of legume cakes baked in MW-IR oven with conventional oven. For this reason, oven type (conventional and microwave-infrared combination oven), baking time (4, 4.5 and 5 minutes), legume flour type (lentil, chickpea and pea) and legume flour concentration (10%, 20%, and 30%) were selected as independent variables. As a control, wheat cakes were used. Weight loss, specific volume, porosity, texture, color, gelatinization degree, macro and micro-structure of cakes were determined. MW-IR baked cakes had higher specific volume, porosity, weight loss and crust color change and lower hardness values than conventionally baked cakes. Cakes baked in MW-IR oven gelatinized less than those baked in conventional oven. Pore area fractions of MW-IR baked cakes were higher than conventionally baked cakes. Larger pores of microwave-infrared baked cakes were also observed in Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images. Cakes with high quality can be obtained by replacing 10% of wheat flour with legume flour. Legume flour type did not affect the weight loss, crust and color change of cakes baked in MW-IR for 4 min. Pea flour giving the hardest structure, lowest specific volume, porosity and gelatinization degree was determined to be the least acceptable legume flour. On the other hand, lentil and chickpea cakes had the softest structure, highest specific volume and porosity showing that lentil and chickpea flour can be used to produce functional cakes.


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The main objective of this study was to formulate gluten free breads based on different flours, gums, and emulsifiers for baking in infrared-microwave combination oven. In the first part of the study, the rheological properties of different gluten-free bread dough formulations containing only rice flour and rice-chestnut flour blend with different gums, gum blends and/or emulsifiers were evaluated. Power law model and Herschel–Bulkley models were found to explain the flow behaviors of rice and chestnut-rice...
Citation Formats
B. C. Özkahraman, “Development of functional cakes to be baked in microwave-infrared combination oven,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2014.