Synthesis and characterization of toluene diisocyanate

Hisar Telli, Ayşegül
Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is one of the important components of solid rocket propellants. It is used for the construction of polyurethane network by reacting with hydroxy terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) and functions as a curing agent. The aim of project, supported by Ministry of Science Industry and Technology under SANTEZ program in collaboration with ROKETSAN, is to synthesize TDI at laboratory scale by determining the best method/methods that give the product in high yield with desired isomer ratio and quality. Although TDI is in industrially important compound, most of the studies concerning the synthesis of this compound are patented. To the best of our knowledge, TDI is not produced in Turkey and there is no study related to the production of this chemical. In this project TDI synthesis was planned in three steps which are nitration of toluene, reduction of dinitrotoluene, and phosgenation of toluenediamine. Standard nitration method was applied in the first step but optimizations were necessary in order to get the product in required isomer ratio. In the second step, Raney Nickel was found to be the ideal catalyst for the reduction of nitro groups. Finally conversion of amine groups to isocyanate groups was achieved by triphosgene reagent. Structural characterizations were carried out via NMR and FT-IR.


Development of anodes for direct oxidation of methane fuel in solid oxide fuel cells
Akdeniz, Yelda; Timurkutluk, Bora; Timurkutluk, Cigdem (2016-06-22)
In addition to pure hydrogen, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) can utilize hydrocarbons as a fuel. However, conventional Ni-based anodes exhibit an excellent catalytic activity towards the hydrocarbon cracking reaction and thus the carbon deposition occurs in the anode. The deposited carbons quickly deactivate the anode irreversibly by covering the active surface of the anode catalyst. As a result, a significant degradation in the cell performance can be seen. In this study, the anode structure is modified by...
Synthesis of a new orthorhombic metastable form of CdS through solid-state reactions
Bi̇lgi̇n, M.; Kızılyallı, Meral; Usanmaz, Ali (Elsevier BV, 1989-5)
CdS has been prepared through solid-gas reactions of CdO with a sulfidizing gas mixture, at 750°C for 3 hr, and slow cooling under nitrogen atmosphere. The X-ray diffraction data of the product was indexed in a hexagonal system with unit cell parameters of a = 4.136 and c = 6.713Å, which agreed with the literature data. However, the presence of extra strong lines in the X-ray diffraction pattern and the splitting in the d-spacings showed that a new orthorhombic form of CdS was obtained. The unit cell dimens...
Experimental analysis on the measurement of ballistic properties of solid propellants
Cuerdaneli, S.; Ak, M. A.; Ulaş, Abdullah (2007-06-16)
Ballistic properties of solid propellants play an important role in the performance of the solid propellant rocket motors. Therefore, ballistic properties of a likely propellant should be known and provided to the design engineers. In this study, a specific AP/HTPB composite solid propellant (SCP) was examined to obtain steady-state linear burning rates as a function of pressure and propellant initial temperature, temperature sensitivity, and pressure deflagration limit (PDL). In some tests micro-thermocoup...
Synthesis of Tungstophosphoric Acid Incorporated Mesoporous Alumina Catalysts for Methanol Dehydration in DME Synthesis
Şener, M İlker; Sezgi, Naime Aslı; Doğu, Timur; Doğu, Güşen; Oktar, Nuray (null; 2016-04-27)
Dimethyl ether (DME) is considered as a highly promising environmentally clean diesel fuel alternate, which can be produced from synthesis gas. It has high cetane number (55-60) and clean burning properties [1]. Possibility of using CO2 as the carbon source in DME production makes this process even more attractive as a carbon neutral technology. Production of DME from synthesis gas requires a bifunctional catalyst combination, for methanol synthesis and dehydration functions. As for the methanol synthesis ...
Synthesis and characterization of conducting copolymers of (S)-2-methylbutyl-2-(3-thienyl)acetate with pyrrole and thiophene
Levent, A; Toppare, Levent Kamil; Cianga, I; Yagci, Y (Wiley, 2003-05-30)
Polymerization of methylbutyl-2-(3-thienyl)-acetate (MBTA) was achieved by constant current electrolysis at low temperature. Subsequently, the syntheses of block copolymers of polyMBTA were accomplished in the presence of either pyrrole or thiophene by constant potential electrolysis. Moreover, the copolymer of MBTA with thiophene was obtained with constant potential electrolysis.
Citation Formats
A. Hisar Telli, “Synthesis and characterization of toluene diisocyanate,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2014.