Molecular phylogenetic analyses of Juniperus L. species in Turkey and their relations with other junipers based on cpDNA

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2015
Güvendiren, Aysun Demet
Evolutionary relationships within and among two sections and three subsections of Juniperus species (Section Juniperus, subsections Juniperus, Oxycedrus and Caryocedrus, Section Sabina) naturally distributed in Turkey were investigated with molecular variations of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA). This study revealed the phylogenetic relation of 66 individuals from 7 native Turkish Juniperus L. species based upon DNA sequence of trnL intron (trnL5’-L3’) , trnL3’- F(GAA) (trnL-F intergenic spacer), trnV intron and matK (maturase kinase) of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) regions. Furthermore, Juniperus species obtained from GenBank and one Cupressus sempervirens L. species as outgroup were included to determine the evolutionary relation of Turkish Junipers with other Juniperus L. species. The results of the study indicated that Juniperus L. species in Turkey were classified properly at section, species and even population level. Especially the species of section Juniperus gave correlated results with previous morphological classifications such that J. communis L. and J. drupacea Labill. which are known as blue seeded Juniperus L. species were diverged from red seeded J. oxycedrus L. At species level, some populations were divergent. For instance, J. oxycedrus L. from Kastamonu Kayalı Köyü, J. foetidissima Willd. from Eskişehir Çatacık gave different haplotype patterns from other members of the species. For J. oxycedrus L. from Kastamonu Kayalı Köyü the divergence might be due to geographic isolation; however, J.foetidissima Willd. might vary through gene flow from other Juniperus L. species in the same location. In fact, J. foetidissima Willd. from Eskişehir Çatacık did not show close pattern with other J. foetidissima Willd. (Section Sabina) samples, but showed relationship with section Juniperus. To figure out phylogenetic relationships among Juniperus L. species distributed in Turkey and in other regions of the World, DNA sequences of studied regions of foreign samples were obtained from the NCBI database and were evaluated with DNA sequence of Turkish species used in the curent study. The samples of Section Juniperus gave expected results but including New World species of Section Sabina lead to dispersed allocation with Old World species of the same section. New World Sabina section distributed with different subclusters within Old World Sabina section. The result can be concluded as New World members of Section Sabina has not been well resolved yet and possessed close relation with Old World Sabina section. The evolutionary time have shown that matK region has more recent divergence than trn region. Moreover, subsection Juniperus and Oxycedrus showed the closest relation followed by subsection Caryocedrus. The evolution of Juniperus L. date back to more than 20 million years which was probably at Oligocene Miocene boundry. The geography of origin of Juniperus L. was probaby Eurasia such that New World species of Section Sabina diverged from other sections of Juniperus L. and probably evolved seperately after Median – Tethyan belt seperation.

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Citation Formats
A. D. Güvendiren, “Molecular phylogenetic analyses of Juniperus L. species in Turkey and their relations with other junipers based on cpDNA,” Ph.D. - Doctoral Program, Middle East Technical University, 2015.