An Experimental study on the pool fire burning characteristics of n-heptane and ethanol in the tunnels

Yamalı, Tevfik Uluç
The road and railway tunnel disasters in recent decades drew the attention of fire safety engineers. The effects of mechanical ventilation, tunnel geometry, physical and chemical properties of fuel on fire characteristics such as heat release rate, smoke temperature distributions along the tunnel and burning rate are experimentally examined on full scaled, large scaled and reduced scaled tunnel models. Although there are many studies on the effects of conventional fuels like gasoline and diesel, the blended fuels and radiative effects of fire are barely addressed in tunnel fire scenarios. In this study, heptane pool fires and 10 %, 20 % and 30 % volumetric fractions of ethanol blended heptane pool fires are studied with square and rectangular pan geometries under 0.5 m/s to 2.5 m/s ventilation conditions with 0.5 m/s incremental intervals in a reduced scale tunnel model based on the Froude number scaling. Two separate experimental matrices are prepared with one variable at a time approach. The fuel mass, temperature distribution, O2, CO2 and CO gas concentration are measured and are compared to observe the effect of changing parameters. The interior wall surfaces of tunnel are covered with high reflecting material for particular ethanol pool fires. The radiative heat flux of fire, the back radiation of walls and combustion gases are respectively measured through a series of experiments.


Assessment of tunnel induced deformation field through 3-dimensional numerical models (Necatibey subway station, Ankara, Turkey)
Aktürk, Özgür; Doyuran, Vedat; Department of Geological Engineering (2010)
In heavily settled areas, deformations induced by the tunnel excavation may cause serious damage to nearby structures. In this study it is aimed to model ground deformations induced by main tunnels and connection tunnels excavations as well as groundwater drainage. Therefore, it is necessary to study effective means of controlling tunnel induced deformations. The main parameters affecting the failure and deformation state of the soil around a circular underground opening are the physical characteristics of ...
Flow characterization study and fire experiments in a reduced scaled tunnel
Abuaisheh, Majd Basil Abdel Muhsen; Yozgatlıgil, Ahmet; Pınarcıoğlu, Mehmet Melih; Department of Mechanical Engineering (2019)
This work is an experimental study on the subject of tunnel fires, which is conducted on a ventilated 1/13 scaled tunnel model in the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering of Middle East Technical University. In order to perform the experiments, in the first stage, the tunnel model was completely renovated, and its overall condition was improved to obtain better means of control and accuracy on the experimental measurements. In the second stage of the thesis, a flow characterizati...
Analysis of support design practice at Elmalık portals of Bolu Tunnel
Aşçıoğlu, Gökhan; Karpuz, Celal; Department of Mining Engineering (2007)
A completed part of the Bolu Tunnel at Elmalık side collapsed during the 1999 Düzce earthquake. In order to by-pass the collapsed section, a new tunnel route was determined. 474 meters of the new route, including two portals and double tubing, crossed through the weak to very weak rock units with intersecting fault gouge, excavated from Elmalık side. In this study, the characteristics of the rock masses and support classes are determined for new route of the Elmalik Side. Then, during the tunnel excavation,...
Yamalı, Uluç; Shafee, Sina; Yozgatlıgil, Ahmet (2015-09-11)
Fire accidents in recent decades have drawn attention to safety issues associated with the design, construction and maintenance of tunnels. A reduced scale tunnel model constructed based on Froude scaling technique is used in the current work. Mixtures of n-heptane and ethanol are burned with ethanol volumetric fraction up to 30 percent and the longitudinal ventilation velocity varying from 0.5 to 2.5 m/s. The burning rates of the pool fires are measured using a precision load cell. The heat release rates o...
Verification of empirically determined support systems of the Kılıçlar highway tunnel by numerical modelling
Çelik, Gözde; Topal, Tamer; Department of Geological Engineering (2011)
The aim of this study is to determine the geological and geotechnical characteristics of Kılıçlar Tunnel on Ankara-Kırıkkale Highway, to suggest the appropriate support and excavation systems and verify these suggested support systems via numerical modeling. The length of Kılıçlar Tunnel is 1110 m. The width of tunnel is 16 m, the height is 10 m and the maximum overburden height is 90 m. Since Ankara-Kırıkkale Highway consists of 2x3 lanes, the tunnel is designed as a twin tube tunnel. Kılıçlar Tunnel is pl...
Citation Formats
T. U. Yamalı, “An Experimental study on the pool fire burning characteristics of n-heptane and ethanol in the tunnels,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2015.