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Analysis of support design practice at Elmalık portals of Bolu Tunnel

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2007
Aşçıoğlu, Gökhan
A completed part of the Bolu Tunnel at Elmalık side collapsed during the 1999 Düzce earthquake. In order to by-pass the collapsed section, a new tunnel route was determined. 474 meters of the new route, including two portals and double tubing, crossed through the weak to very weak rock units with intersecting fault gouge, excavated from Elmalık side. In this study, the characteristics of the rock masses and support classes are determined for new route of the Elmalik Side. Then, during the tunnel excavation, the deformations of temporary and permanent support systems were precisely measured and recorded. The support system properties as determined from NATM were analyzed by two dimensional convergence confinement method using the numerical RocSupport software. As a result of this study, for weak ground tunneling, duration of primary support installation should be kept at minimum. Besides that, temporary support measures such as forepoling, face sealing and temporary invert have an important role in controlling deformations before the primary support installation. With the application of temporary supports, loading on the permanent support, and hence the final deformation of the excavation, was found to be reduced significantly. Application of rigid lining was found to be necessary in order to prevent long-term deformations in weak ground tunnels, even though it is contradictory to the NATM philosophy.