Phenotypic and genetic characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella isolates from different sources in Turkey

Acar, Sinem
Salmonella enterica subsp. enteric serovars are responsible for causing the highest number of bacterial foodborne infections in the world. Antimicrobial resistance (AR) and virulence of Salmonella isolates play a critical role in systemic infections and they impose great concern to human health in severe salmonellosis cases when multidrug resistance interferes with treatment. Also, antimicrobial resistance genes might be shared with closely related human pathogens. Therefore, antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring of isolates from farm/field to fork is very crucial. The objective of this study was to determine the phenotypic and genetic variations of the AR among Salmonella isolates from different sources (i.e., animal, human, and foods). Disk diffusion and MIC methods were used for phenotypic characterization of AR in Salmonella isolates. For genotyping characterization, beta-lactam, chloramphenicol, aminoglycoside, sulfonamide and tetracycline resistance coding genes were studied. At the end, 21 regions of known antimicrobial resistant coding genes (blaTEM-1, blaPSE-1, blaCMY-2, ampC, cat1 ,cat2, flo, cmlA, aadA1, aadA2, strA, strB, aacC2, aphA1-Iab, dhfrI, dhfrXII, sulI, sulII, tetA, tetB, tetG) were amplified to determine genetic variation of AR. The co-presence of some antimicrobial resistance genes had raised the question of mobile genetic elements presence, thus occurrence of plasmids and class 1 integrons on the isolates were analyzed. To investigate the virulence characteristics, ctdB, gatC, gogB, hlyE, pefA, ssek3, sseI, sspH, sodC, sopE, STM 2759, tcfA genes were screened on the isolates. The results were analyzed according to the source of isolate (food, animal, and human), the type of serovar. Our study fills the gap of limited relevant study about the antibiotic susceptibility profile of Salmonella isolates from farm/field to fork. Our study has the potential of being a progressive work conducted in the pathogenicity area.


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Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis (S. Infantis) isolates were found to have a multi-drug resistance profile (kanamycin, streptomycin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, sulfonamide, and sometimes to ampicillin) and high prevalence (91%) in Turkish poultry in our previous studies. To investigate the mechanism behind multi-drug antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and high prevalence in Turkish poultry, 23 of the isolates were sequenced for comparative genomic analyses including: SNP-based comparison ...
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Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica serovar Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica serovar Enteritidis are the major dominating serotypes of Salmonella in poultry and poultry products. Infection by Salmonella Typhimurium is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in poultry. Rapid differentiation of Salmonella Typhimurium from other Salmonella serotypes including Salmonella Enteritidis can be very crutial for public health and for epidemiologists and for the poultry industry. Ten arbitrarily ...
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Salmonella spp. represent one of the most common causes of bacterial foodborne illnesses around the world. The species Salmonella enterica contains more than 2500 serotypes, and emergence of new human pathogenic Salmonella strains and serotypes represents a major public health issue. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype 4,5,12:i:- represents a monophasic variant of Salmonella Typhimurium, which has rarely been identified before the mid-1990s. The prevalence of this serotype among human salmonellosis...
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The emerging situation of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis (S. Infantis) in Turkey was investigated in terms of virulence genes and mobile genetic elements such as Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) and class 1 (C1) integron to see whether increased multidrug resistance (MDR) and ability to cause human cases is a consequence of their possession. Screening of SGI1 (and its variants) and C1 integrons was done with conventional PCR, while screening of gene cassettes and virulence genes was ...
Subtyping of salmonella isolated from human clinical and animal non-clinical cases, as well as different food samples using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) /
Bulut, Ece; Soyer, Yeşim; Özcengiz, Gülay; Department of Biotechnology (2014)
Salmonella is one of the most reported pathogens in foodborne outbreaks worldwide. In order to ensure safety of foods, farm-to-fork surveillance and control systems must be utilized. Development of numerous typing methods have improved the ability to detect salmonellosis outbreaks, enabling to trace the contaminated source from farm to fork. Facilitating prevention and regulation of techniques, knowledge of the epidemiology, genetics and ecology of Salmonella infections depend on the information provided by...
Citation Formats
S. Acar, “Phenotypic and genetic characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella isolates from different sources in Turkey,” Ph.D. - Doctoral Program, Middle East Technical University, 2015.