A study on the building techniques and materials in the late antique and byzantine fortifications in anatolia: Ancyra and Nicaea /

Yavuzatmaca, Mercan
This research aims to investigate building techniques and materials in the Late Antique and Byzantine fortifications of Anatolia through the selected case studies of Ancyra/Ankara and Nicaea/Iznik. The majority of Late Antique and Byzantine fortifications in Anatolia are distinguished by ashlar masonry, including quantities of spolia, with alternating courses of brick. The frequent appearance of brick, in combination with more-or-less regularly cut blocks or spolia, in the buildings and fortifications of Anatolia from the Late Roman through to the Byzantine periods (particularly from the ninth century onwards) creates difficulties in offering a precise dating for these structures. The citadel of Ankara, in terms of construction technique and materials, finds one of its closest parallels in the fortifications of Iznik. The major modification to the walls of Iznik, originally built in the third century AD, is attributed to Michael III, or precisely to the year 858 by the inscriptions. The eighth and ninth century phases of the walls of Iznik are characterized by rich quantities of spolia alternating with bands of brick. Similarly, the rebuilding of the inner circuit of the Ankara fortifications, built of large blocks of spolia up to a height of eight-to-ten meters, capped above by alternating courses of brick and rubble stone, is attributed to the year 859. The rebuilding of the walls of both Ankara and Iznik were included in a large-scale program of fortification by the Emperor Michael III (842-867). A close examination of these two fortifications will help us understand the development of the variations in ashlar masonry and spolia, in combination with brick, and shed light on dating and restitution issues, assisting in determining appropriate conservation approaches, in other Late Antique and Byzantine fortifications in Anatolia.


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The core of this thesis is the interpretation and presentation of archaeological sites which are the palimpsests of past lives and cultures. The thesis investigates the interpretation and presentation approaches for an archaeological site to display itself to the non-professional audiences while preserving its unique characteristics. The study can be divided into two cohesive parts: the former as the conceptual and theoretical section and the latter is investigation on a specific case. At the first section ...
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Karakul Türk, Özlem (2021-01-01)
This study conducted a holistic assessment on the traditional building culture of the Eastern Black Sea region by investigating the construction techniques, materials, and methods among building masters. For this purpose, by examining regional building construction techniques and the data from the literature research, traditional architecture was investigated in terms of both its tangible and intangible values. Additional data was obtained from a series of interviews with the builders, architectural drawing...
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The field of preservation of historic and cultural heritage has been a multidisciplinary science from the beginning. And the demand for any pioneer technique that may ease the conservation task still lives. In the past four decades computational design has started grow with the aim of conservation and the evolution of its techniques have been helping the specialists in nearly every step of decisions they make, notably in archeology. The digital data derived from a physical site, whether it is an object, mon...
Citation Formats
M. Yavuzatmaca, “A study on the building techniques and materials in the late antique and byzantine fortifications in anatolia: Ancyra and Nicaea /,” M.Arch. - Master of Architecture, Middle East Technical University, 2016.