The Relations of İstanbul and Ankara within the press of Turkish national struggle (1918-1922)

Demirel, Ali
The basic goal of this thesis is to analyze the relations of the Turkish Nationalists with the İstanbul Governments, the Allied powers and also Soviet Russia during the Turkish National Struggle with a special focus on the religious-judicial and military-political legitimacy of the National movement as reflected in the newspapers published in İstanbul and Anatolia. Except for three anti-nationalist newspapers, Türkçe İstanbul, Alemdar and Peyam-ı Sabah, the most influential nationalist newspapers, İkdam, İfham, Tasvir-i Efkar, Vakit, İleri, Yeni Gün, Akşam, Hadisat, Öğüt, Albayrak, Açıksöz, İrade-i Milliye, İzmir’e Doğru and Hakimiyet-i Milliye, published in İstanbul and Anatolia supported the National movement in spite of heavy censorship of the İstanbul Government and the Allied powers. These newspapers defended that the Nationalists achieved the religious and legal legitimacy by establishing the society for the defense of rights, organizing national congresses, publishing a fatwa against İstanbul, opening the Grand National Assembly, and enacting laws in Ankara. In addition, according to the publications of the nationalist press in İstanbul and Anatolia, the National Government in Ankara proved its diplomatic-political legitimacy in the international arena thanks to the great military victories, such as Battles of İnönü, Sakarya and the Great Offensive. The political agreements of the Ankara Government, like the Ankara Treaty, signed with France, the Moscow Treaty of Friendship signed with Soviet Russia, and finally, the Mudanya Armistice Treaty signed with representatives of the Allied powers prepared the ground the Ankara Government for being the sole representative of the Turkish people in the international arena.


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Citation Formats
A. Demirel, “The Relations of İstanbul and Ankara within the press of Turkish national struggle (1918-1922),” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2018.