The International news agencies in the Ottoman Empire (1854-1908)

Yanatma, Servet
This dissertation explores the establishment, development and activities of international news agencies, particularly Reuter and Havas in the Ottoman Empire; and their relations with the Ottoman State. While the European imperialism dominated the nineteenth century, international communication was one of the main necessities of this expansion. The agencies, which mainly began their services in the mid-nineteenth century, became one of the significant tools of this expansion with the advent of telegraph. After occasional reporting of Havas in Istanbul during the Crimean War, both the French agency and Reuter established their offices in the Ottoman capital in the mid-1860s. However, the Ottoman State perceived the agencies as a “threat” because of their “malicious and detrimental” stories that they cabled to Europe and distributed in Istanbul. Yet, the Ottoman State lacked the institutional groundwork in order to manage the press. The relations between the Ottoman State and the international news agencies were interdependent and they pursued to benefit from the capabilities of each other. However, mutual struggle was inevitable when their interests conflicted. The agencies shared the world according to their respective empires‟ political sphere but Havas and Reuter were in a hard competition in Istanbul. They also served as instruments of their respective governments in order to penetrate into the Ottoman Empire at a time of European imperialism. However, the Ottoman State was not an object but a subject in the face of this penetration; and tried to handle them in an active way.


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Citation Formats
S. Yanatma, “The International news agencies in the Ottoman Empire (1854-1908),” Ph.D. - Doctoral Program, Middle East Technical University, 2015.