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A new exposure route to trace elements in indoor particulate matter.

Broomandi, P
Amouei, Torkmahalleh
Akturk, M
Ngagine, Sh
Gorjinezhad, S
Ozturk, F
Koçak, Mustafa
Kim, J
Concentrations and emission rates of sixteen trace elements in emitted PM during heating soybean oil using three types of pans, including Teflon, granitium, and cast-iron, were investigated. Statistically significant decreases in Mn and Co emission rates were observed when the oil was heated in the cast-iron pan compared to Teflon and granitium pans. Among the released trace elements, Ni, Ba, Zn, and Cr had more contribution to the emission rate. The concentrations of Fe in the emitted PM1 were found to be higher when cast-iron pan (8.49 +/- 3.35 mu g/m(3)) was utilized compared to Teflon (8.05 +/- 2.27 mu g/m(3)) and granitium (7.45 +/- 1.38 mu g/m(3)). However, these increases were statistically insignificant. The results of our study support the hypothesis that the trace elements translocate from cooking pans into the heated oil and subsequently to the particulate phase. This translocation creates a new inhalation exposure route to trace elements in indoor environments.