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A nonintrusive diagnostics technique for flame soot based on near-infrared emission spectrometry

Ayrancı Kılınç, Işıl
A novel nonintrusive soot diagnostics methodology was developed, validated and applied for in-situ determination of temperature, volume fraction and refractive index of soot aggregates formed inside flames by using near-infrared emission spectrometry. Research was conducted in three main parts, first one addressing development and validation of a comprehensive "direct" model for simulation of line-of-sight radiative emission from axisymmetric sooty flames by coupling sub-models for radiative transfer, radiative properties and optical constants. Radiative property estimation for soot agglomerates was investigated by experimentally validating discrete dipole approximation against microwave measurements and using it as reference to assess applicability of simpler Rayleigh-Debye-Gans approximation for fractal aggregates (RDG-FA). Comparisons between predictions of two methods for soot-like model aggregates demonstrated that radiative property predictions of RDG-FA are acceptably accurate for relatively small soot aggregates encountered in small-scale flames. Part two concerns experimental investigation of an axisymmetric ethylene/air diffusion flame by Fourier Transform Near-Infrared spectroscopy. Measurement of line-of-sight emission intensity spectra was performed along with analyses on calibration, noise, uncertainty and reproducibility. A noise characterization approach was introduced to account for spatial fluctuations which were found to dominate over spectral noise. Final part focuses on development, evaluation and application of an inversion methodology that inputs spectral emission intensity measurements from optically thin flames, removes noise, identifies soot refractive index from spectral gradients and retrieves soot temperature and volume fraction fields by tomographic reconstruction. Validation with simulated data and favorable application to measurements indicate that proposed methodology is a promising option for nonintrusive soot diagnostics in flames.