Sulfide Oxidation across Diffuse Flow Zones of Hydrothermal Vents

Gartman, Amy
Yücel, Mustafa
Madison, Andrew S.
Chu, David W.
MA, Shufen
Janzen, Christopher P.
Becker, Erin L.
Beinart, Roxanne A.
Girguis, Peter R.
Luther, George W.
The sulfide (H(2)S/HS(-)) that is emitted from hydrothermal vents begins to oxidize abiotically with oxygen upon contact with ambient bottom water, but the reaction kinetics are slow. Here, using in situ voltammetry, we report detection of the intermediate sulfur oxidation products polysulfides [S(x)(2-)] and thiosulfate [S(2)O(3)(2-)], along with contextual data on sulfide, oxygen, and temperature. At Lau Basin in 2006, thiosulfate was identified in less than one percent of approximately 10,500 scans and no polysulfides were detected. Only five percent of 11,000 voltammetric scans taken at four vent sites at Lau Basin in May 2009 show either thiosulfate or polysulfides. These in situ data indicate that abiotic sulfide oxidation does not readily occur as H(2)S contacts oxic bottom waters. Calculated abiotic potential sulfide oxidation rates are < 10(-3) mu M/min and are consistent with slow oxidation and the observed lack of sulfur oxidation intermediates. It is known that the thermodynamics for the first electron transfer step for sulfide and oxygen during sulfide oxidation in these systems are unfavorable, and that the kinetics for two electron transfers are not rapid. Here, we suggest that different metal catalyzed and/or biotic reaction pathways can readily produce sulfur oxidation intermediates. Via shipboard high-pressure incubation experiments, we show that snails with chemosynthetic endosymbionts do release polysulfides and may be responsible for our field observations of polysulfides.


Chemistry, Temperature, and Faunal Distributions at Diffuse-Flow Hydrothermal Vents Comparison of Two Geologically Distinct Ridge Systems
Luther, George W.; Gartman, Amy; Yücel, Mustafa; Madison, Andrew S.; Moore, Tommy S.; Nees, Heather A.; Nuzzio, Donald B.; SEN, Arunima; Lutz, Richard A.; Shank, Timothy M.; Fisher, Charles R. (2012-03-01)
Diffuse-flow, low-temperature areas near hydrothermal vents support life via chemosynthesis: hydrogen sulfide (and other reduced chemical compounds) emanating from the subsurface is oxidized with bottom-water oxygen through bacterial mediation to fix carbon dioxide and produce biomass. This article reviews the in situ diffuse-flow chemistry (mainly H2S and O-2) and temperature data collected in 2006 and 2009 along the Eastern Lau Spreading Center (ELSC), and from 2004 to 2008 at 9 degrees N along the East P...
Temporal trends in vent fluid iron and sulfide chemistry following the 2005/2006 eruption at East Pacific Rise, 9 degrees 50 ' N
Yücel, Mustafa (2013-04-01)
The chemistry of vent fluids that emanate to the seafloor undergoes dramatic changes after volcanic eruptions. Data on these changes are still limited, but the best studied example is the East Pacific Rise (EPR) at 9 degrees 50N, where the temporal evolution of the vent fluid chemistry after the 1991/1992 eruption was documented. The area underwent another eruption sequence during late 2005/early 2006, and here we show that a similar evolution is recurring in the iron and sulfide contents of the high-temper...
Hydrogen sulfide determination by solid surface luminescence
Eroglu, AE; Volkan, Mürvet; Bayramh, E; Ataman, Osman Yavuz; Mark, HB (1996-07-01)
In the analytical system suggested, atmospheric hydrogen sulfide reacts with the surface of a filter paper treated with aqueous cadmium chloride and yields a luminescent species whose intensity can be correlated with the analyte concentration in ambient air. It was shown that the luminescent species are CdS solid particles which were formed in a well defined size. The paper luminescence was also tried on polymeric surfaces; polyethyleneoxide, polyvinyl alcohol, ethylcellulose and carboxymethylcellulose were...
Diffusion in Hypersonic Flows
Gür, Hilmi Berk; Eyi, Sinan (Nova Science Pub Inc, 2020-10-01)
In hypersonic flows, air goes into chemical reaction due to high temperature. Therefore, in addition to the Navier-Stokes Equations, chemical reaction equations need to be solved to analyze hypersonic flows. A model may be need to simulate the diffusion phenomena among chemical species. It is possible to implement Fick's Law of Diffusion as well as Stefan-Maxwell Diffusion Equation. Basically, in Fick's Law of Diffusion, the driving force is the species concentration differences. This method is similar to t...
Sulfonation degree determination of polystyrene ionomers by using adiabatic bomb calorimeter
Alkan, C; Dumanli, AG; Aras, L (Wiley, 2006-06-15)
Sulfonation degree determination of sulfonated polystyrene and the corresponding ionomers are performed by adiabatic bomb calorimeter. The theoretical calculations from the band energies for the combustion enthalpy values (calorific values) and the experimental values are compared, and a linear relation between the values is found. Sulfonation and neutralization processes are examined by elemental Sulfur analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). It was obvious that increasing sulfonation degree yie...
Citation Formats
A. Gartman et al., “Sulfide Oxidation across Diffuse Flow Zones of Hydrothermal Vents,” AQUATIC GEOCHEMISTRY, pp. 583–601, 2011, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: