Multivariate statistics to investigate metal contamination in surface soil

Alagha, Omar
Tuncel, Süleyman Gürdal
The modification of soil composition in the urbanized area of Ankara due to wet-dry deposition and pollution-derived particles from the atmosphere is investigated by analyzing 120 surface soil samples, collected from the urbanized area and its un-urbanized surrounding, for major, minor and trace elements. Concentrations of elements from human activity (e.g. Cd, Pb, Cr, Zn, Cu and Ca) in the urbanized area were higher than their corresponding concentrations in global average soil and soil in un-urbanized areas outside the urbanized area. Metal contents in soil were very high in densely populated districts and around some industrial facilities. The only exception was Ph distribution, which was more dispersed, due to the nature of motor vehicle emissions. Alteration of the Cd, Zn, Cu and Cr content of soil was confined to the inhabited and industrial areas, whereas enrichment factors of these elements were close to unity in the remaining study area. Factor analysis identified two polluted soil factor associations. One factor includes elements, such as Zn and Cd, which had high factor scores in inhabited areas and the other factor (high loading of Pb) represents soil polluted by motor vehicle emissions.
Citation Formats
O. D. YAY, O. Alagha, and S. G. Tuncel, “Multivariate statistics to investigate metal contamination in surface soil,” pp. 581–594, 2008, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: