Illitization of Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous K-bentonites from Western Pontides, NW Turkey: Implications for their origin and age

K-bentonite (tephra) layers are exposed as thin beds within Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous carbonates of the Yilanh formation at four different locations in northwestern, Turkey. Clays separated from K-bentonites in the Gavurpman, Yilanh Burnu (Barth) and Cimsir Cukurlari (Sapca) quarries and the highway tunnel section near Zonguldak were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, optical, scanning and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The clay mineralogy is dominated by illite and mixed-layer illite-smectite (I-Sm) along with subordinate amounts of kaolinite, dolomite, calcite, quartz, feldspar, and gypsum. Morphologically, platy shaped illite is the major clay mineral in the Gavurpman and Yilanh Burnu sites, while sponge-like to platy shaped mixed-layer illite-smectites occur in the Sapca Cimsir Cukurlari and Gokgol sites. Illite Kubler index (KI, Delta degrees 20) and polytype data indicate high-grade diagenesis for illite-bearing site, and low-grade diagenesis for I-Sm-bearing sites. Lattice d060 values (A) of illite and I-Sm reflect a dioctahedral composition, with relatively larger d060 values in the Yilanli Burnu site, which is related to Mg incorporation into the octahedral layer from dolomitic limestone host-rocks


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Mericarp (nutlet) micromorphology and pericarp structure of three morphologically similar endemic Salvia species; Salvia hedgeana, S. huberi and S. rosifolia were investigated using LM, SEM and TEM. Salvia hedgeana has larger mericarps and abscission scars than S. huberi and S. rosifolia. Mericarp length to width ratio ranges from 1.11 in S. hedgeana to 1.60 in S. huberi. Mericarp shape is mainly ovoid, rarely broadly ovoid in S. hedgeana, and oblong in S. huberi. The mericarp surface sculpturing pattern in...
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<jats:p>Abstract. A three-dimensional primitive equation model including sea ice thermodynamics and air-sea interaction is used to study seasonal circulation and water mass variability in the Caspian Sea under the influence of realistic mass, momentum and heat fluxes. River discharges, precipitation, radiation and wind stress are seasonally specified in the model, based on available data sets. The evaporation rate, sensible and latent heat fluxes at the sea surface are computed interactively through an atmo...
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<jats:p>Abstract. Hypoxia conditions are increasing throughout the world, influencing biogeochemical cycles of elements and marine life. Hypoxia results from complex interactions between physical and biogeochemical processes, which can not be understood by observations alone. Models are invaluable tools at studying system dynamics, generalizing discrete observations and predicting future states. They are also useful as management tools for evaluating site-specific responses to management scenarios. Here we ...
Citation Formats
Ö. BOZKAYA, A. Günal Türkmenoğlu, M. C. Göncüoğlu, O. Unluce, İ. Ö. Yılmaz, and P. A. Schroeder, “Illitization of Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous K-bentonites from Western Pontides, NW Turkey: Implications for their origin and age,” APPLIED CLAY SCIENCE, pp. 257–274, 2016, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: