Illitization of Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous K-bentonites from Western Pontides, NW Turkey: Implications for their origin and age

K-bentonite (tephra) layers are exposed as thin beds within Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous carbonates of the Yilanh formation at four different locations in northwestern, Turkey. Clays separated from K-bentonites in the Gavurpman, Yilanh Burnu (Barth) and Cimsir Cukurlari (Sapca) quarries and the highway tunnel section near Zonguldak were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, optical, scanning and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The clay mineralogy is dominated by illite and mixed-layer illite-smectite (I-Sm) along with subordinate amounts of kaolinite, dolomite, calcite, quartz, feldspar, and gypsum. Morphologically, platy shaped illite is the major clay mineral in the Gavurpman and Yilanh Burnu sites, while sponge-like to platy shaped mixed-layer illite-smectites occur in the Sapca Cimsir Cukurlari and Gokgol sites. Illite Kubler index (KI, Delta degrees 20) and polytype data indicate high-grade diagenesis for illite-bearing site, and low-grade diagenesis for I-Sm-bearing sites. Lattice d060 values (A) of illite and I-Sm reflect a dioctahedral composition, with relatively larger d060 values in the Yilanli Burnu site, which is related to Mg incorporation into the octahedral layer from dolomitic limestone host-rocks


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Mericarp (nutlet) micromorphology and pericarp structure of three morphologically similar endemic Salvia species; Salvia hedgeana, S. huberi and S. rosifolia were investigated using LM, SEM and TEM. Salvia hedgeana has larger mericarps and abscission scars than S. huberi and S. rosifolia. Mericarp length to width ratio ranges from 1.11 in S. hedgeana to 1.60 in S. huberi. Mericarp shape is mainly ovoid, rarely broadly ovoid in S. hedgeana, and oblong in S. huberi. The mericarp surface sculpturing pattern in...
Covalent immobilization of alpha-amylase onto poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) and poly(styrene-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) microspheres and the effect of Ca2+ ions on the enzyme activity
Tumturk, H; Aksoy, S; Hasırcı, Nesrin (2000-02-01)
alpha-Amylase (1,4-alpha-D-glucan-glucanohydrolase; EC, Type VI-B from porcine pancreas, extra pure 29 units mg(-1)) was covalently immobilized on poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate), p(HEMA), and poly (styrene-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate), p(St-HEMA) microspheres, which were activated by using epichlorohydrin (ECH). The properties of the immobilized enzyme were investigated and compared with those of the free enzyme. For the assays carried out at 25 degrees C and pH 6.9, the relative activities were...
Seasonal variability of the Caspian Sea three-dimensional circulation, sea level and air-sea interaction
Ibrayev, R. A; Ozsoy, E; Schrum, C.; Sur, H. I. (Copernicus GmbH, 2010-3-3)
<jats:p>Abstract. A three-dimensional primitive equation model including sea ice thermodynamics and air-sea interaction is used to study seasonal circulation and water mass variability in the Caspian Sea under the influence of realistic mass, momentum and heat fluxes. River discharges, precipitation, radiation and wind stress are seasonally specified in the model, based on available data sets. The evaporation rate, sensible and latent heat fluxes at the sea surface are computed interactively through an atmo...
Evaluation of the Protective Effects of Quercetin, Rutin, Naringenin, Resveratrol and Trolox Against Idarubicin-Induced DNA Damage
Çelik, Haydar; Arinç, Emel (University of Alberta Libraries, 2010-7-22)
<jats:p>PURPOSE. Idarubicin is a synthetic anthracycline anticancer drug widely used in the treatment of some hematological malignancies. The studies in our laboratory have clearly demonstrated that idarubicin can undergo reductive bioactivation by NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase to free radicals with resulting formation of DNA strand breaks, which can potentially contribute to its genotoxic effects [Çelik, H., Arinç, E., Bioreduction of idarubicin and formation of ROS responsible for DNA cleavage by NADPH-...
C-13- and P-31-NMR study of tetracarbonylbis(diphenylphosphino)alkanemetal(0) complexes of the group 6 elements
Ozer, Z; Özkar, Saim (1999-01-01)
Tetracarbonylbis(diphenylphosphino)alkanemetal(0) complexes of the general formula M(CO)(4)[(C-6 H-5)(2) P (CH2)(n) P(C6H5)(2)] (M: Cr, Mo, W; n: 1, 2, 3) were synthesized from the reaction of M(CO)(4) (eta(2:2)-1,5-cyclooctadiene) with the appropriate ligand and characterized by means of IR and NMR (C-13 and P-31) spectroscopy Spectroscopic data shows that two phosphorus atoms in the complexes are identical and occupy two cis-coordiantion sites in a pseudo-octahedral coordination sphere of the metal. The c...
Citation Formats
Ö. BOZKAYA, A. Günal Türkmenoğlu, M. C. Göncüoğlu, O. Unluce, İ. Ö. Yılmaz, and P. A. Schroeder, “Illitization of Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous K-bentonites from Western Pontides, NW Turkey: Implications for their origin and age,” APPLIED CLAY SCIENCE, pp. 257–274, 2016, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: