Hydrogeochemical outline of thermal waters and geothermometry applications in Anatolia (Turkey)

The chemical compositions of a total of 120 thermal water samples from four different tectonically distinct regions (Central, North, East and West Anatolia) of Turkey are presented and assessed in terms of geothermal energy potential of each region through the use of chemical geothermometers. Na-Ca-HCO3, type waters are the dominant water types in all the regions except that Na-Cl type waters are typical for the coastal areas of West Anatolia and for a few inland areas of West and Central Anatolia where deep water circulation exists. The discharge temperature of the springs ranges up to 100 degrees C, and the bottom-hole temperatures in drilled wells up to 232 degrees C. Geothermometry applications yield reservoir temperatures of about 125 degrees C for Central Anatolia, 110 degrees C for North Anatolia, 136 degrees C for East Anatolia and 251 degrees C for West Anatolia, the latter agreeing with some of the bottom hole temperatures measured in drilled wells. The results reveal that the highest geothermal energy potential in Turkey is associated with the West Anatolian extensional tectonics which provides a regional, deep-seated heat source and a widespread graben system allowing deep circulation of waters. The North Anatolian region, bounded to the south by the dextral North Anatolian Fault along which most of the geothermal sites are located, has the lowest energy potential, probably due to the restriction of the heat source to local magmatic activities confined to pull-apart basins. The East Anatolian region (undergoing contemporary compression) and the Central Anatolian region (where the compressional regime in the east is converted to the extensional regime in the west) have moderate energy potential. Although the recently active volcanoes suggest the presence, at depth, of still cooling magma chambers that are potential heat sources, the lack of well-developed fault systems is probably responsible for the comparatively low energy potential of these regions. Almost all the thermal waters of Turkey are saturated with respect to calcite and, hence, have a significant calcite scaling potential which is particularly high for West Anatolian waters.

Citation Formats
H. Mutlu and N. T. Güleç, “Hydrogeochemical outline of thermal waters and geothermometry applications in Anatolia (Turkey),” Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol. 85, pp. 495–515, 1998, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://hdl.handle.net/11511/35488.