Geochemistry of thermal waters and its relation to the volcanism in the Kizilcahamam (Ankara) area, Turkey

Thermal waters issuing through the Tertiary aged volcanics in the Kizilcahamam (Ankara) area are all alkali-bicarbonate waters with temperatures ranging from 28°C to 86°C. The waters from the town center (MTA-1 and KHD-1 drilling wells, Big Bath and Small Bath) have the highest temperature and an intermediate TDS content, in comparison to the waters sampled from the localities outside the town center (Mineral Water Spring and Sey Bath). The Mineral Water Spring is characterized by the lowest temperature and the highest TDS content. The waters from the Sey Bath have an intermediate temperature and the lowest TDS content. The variations in the temperature and the chemical composition of the waters can be accounted for by a combination of processes including mixing between cold-shallow and hot-deep waters, boiling either before or after mixing, steam heating and conductive cooling. The chemical geothermometers, silica-enthalpy and enthalpy-chloride mixing models suggest a reservoir temperature of 124–190°C for the Kizilcahamam region, and a maximum of 71% deep, hot component for the thermal waters. Within the framework of water-rock interaction, the volume of volcanic rocks necessary to supply the annual water output has been estimated as 16.5 × 106 m3 a−1; the volume of the volcanic rocks necessary to supply the annual chemical output of the thermal waters has been estimated, on the basis of cation contents, as 16,785 m3 a−1. This suggests that, for the thermal waters to obtain their chemical composition, only 0.1 % of the volcanics is required to have undergone leaching. As this amount is rather low, the waters seem to have obtained their cation contents almost totally from the volcanics nearby. On the other hand, the bicarbonate enrichment in the Kizilcahamam waters points to the fact that groundwaters dissolve CO2 arising, probably, from a magmatic body solidifying at depth, which can also account for the heat source of the Kizilcahamam geothermal system.
Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research


Hydrogeochemical outline of thermal waters and geothermometry applications in Anatolia (Turkey)
Mutlu, Halim; Güleç, Nilgün Türkan (Elsevier BV, 1998-10-01)
The chemical compositions of a total of 120 thermal water samples from four different tectonically distinct regions (Central, North, East and West Anatolia) of Turkey are presented and assessed in terms of geothermal energy potential of each region through the use of chemical geothermometers. Na-Ca-HCO3, type waters are the dominant water types in all the regions except that Na-Cl type waters are typical for the coastal areas of West Anatolia and for a few inland areas of West and Central Anatolia where dee...
Geochemical constraints on the Cenozoic, OIB-type alkaline volcanic rocks of NW Turkey: Implications for mantle sources and melting processes
ALDANMAZ, ERCAN; KÖPRÜBAŞI, NEZİHİ; GÜRER, ÖMER FEYZİ; Kaymakcı, Nuretdin; Gourgaud, Alan (Elsevier BV, 2006-01-01)
The volcanic province of North-West Turkey contains a number of intra-continental alkaline volcanic eruption sequences formed along the localized extensional basins developed in relation with the Late Cenozoic extensional processes. The volcanic suite comprises the extracted melt products of adiabatic decompression melting of the mantle that are represented by small-volume intra-continental plate volcanic rocks of alkaline olivine basalts and basanites with compositions representative of mantle-derived, pri...
Hydrogeochemical characterization and conceptual modeling of the Edremit geothermal field (NW Turkey)
Avşar, Özgür; Güleç, Nilgün Türkan; Parlaktuna, Mahmut (Elsevier BV, 2013-07-15)
The Edremit geothermal field, with 42-62 degrees C discharge temperatures, is utilized for space heating. Alternation of permeable and impermeable units created two superimposed aquifers in the area: an upper unconfined and a lower confined. Water samples from 21 (hot-cold) wells were taken in this study. 8 of these wells penetrate the deeper confined aquifer, while 13 penetrate the shallower unconfined aquifer. Geochemical analyses revealed that Na + K - SO4 (>40 degrees C), Ca - HCO3 (<30 degrees C) and C...
Seismic hazard assessment for Cyprus
Cagnan, Zehra; TANIRCAN, GÜLÜM (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2010-04-01)
In the present study, probabilistic seismic hazard assessment was conducted for Cyprus based on several new results: a new comprehensive earthquake catalog, seismic source models based on new research, and new attenuation relationships. Peak ground acceleration distributions obtained for a return period of 475 years for rock conditions indicate high hazard along the southern coastline of Cyprus, where the expected ground motion is between 0.3 and 0.4 g. The rest of the island is characterized by values repr...
Diabase dykes from Bogazkale (Corum), Central Anatolia: Geochemical insights into the geodynamical evolution of the northern branch of Neotethys
Balc, Ugur; Sayıt, Kaan (Elsevier BV, 2020-05-01)
In the Bogazkale region (Corum, Central Anatolia), pieces of Neotethyan oceanic lithosphere are found in an ophiolitic melange. Within the melange, there are occurrences of isolated diabase dykes that intrude serpentinized and carbonatized ultramafics. The diabases are phaneritic, holocrystalline and equigranular, and consist of plagioclase and hornblende as the main primary mineral phases. They have all undergone low-grade alteration, to varying extents, as reflected by the presence of secondary minerals, ...
Citation Formats
N. T. Güleç, “Geochemistry of thermal waters and its relation to the volcanism in the Kizilcahamam (Ankara) area, Turkey,” Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, pp. 295–312, 1994, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: