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A critical review of the state of the art of solid-phase microextraction of complex matrices III. Bioanalytical and clinical applications

Souza-Silva, Erica A.
Reyes-Garces, Nathaly
Gomez-Rios, German A.
Boyacı, Ezel
Bojko, Barbara
Pawliszyn, Janusz
Part III of this review focuses on the state of the art of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) applied to bioanalytical and clinical analysis. We describe and discuss recent applications and new advances in terms of extraction phases and SPME configurations. Biocompatible coatings for the direct extraction of different analytes from urine, blood and tissues are perhaps the most promising approach in SPME. We present a review of the different calibration strategies commonly employed, and a discussion on the advantages and the disadvantages of SPME related to the analysis of these biological matrices. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved,