Amphoteric surface hydrogels derived from hydrogen-bonded multilayers: Reversible loading of dyes and macromolecules

Kharlampieva, Eugenia
Erel Göktepe, İrem
Sukhishvili, Svetlana A.
We used hydrogen-bonded multilayers of poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVPON) and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) as precursors for producing surface-bound hydrogels and studied their pH-dependent swelling and protein uptake behavior using in situ attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and in situ ellipsometry. The hydrogels were produced by selective chemical cross-linking between PMAA units using carbodiimide chemistry and ethylenediamine (EDA) as a cross-linking reagent, followed by complete removal of PVPON from the film obtained by exposing the film to pH 7.5. As shown by in situ ellipsometry, hydrogels exhibit distinctive polyampholytic swelling as a function of pH, with minimum swelling at pH 4.2-5.7, and increased film thickness at both lower and higher pH values. Film swelling at lower pH values occurs as a result of the presence of amino groups within the hydrogels, which originate from the one-end attachment of the EDA cross-linker to PMAA chains. The pH-switching of hydrogel swelling was fast and reversible. The degree of hydrogel swelling could be also controlled by varying the time allowed for cross-linking. The produced hydrogels were able to absorb large amounts of dyes and proteins of opposite charge reversibly, in response to pH variations. Finally, we demonstrate that proteins included within the hydrogel can easily be replaced with linear polycations. These surface hydrogels hold promise for bioseparation and controlled delivery applications.


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The design parameters and principles for the synthesis of polymeric microscopic objects using a method that combines photolithography and liquid crystal (LC) molecular templates have been demonstrated. Specifically, mixtures of a reactive mesogen (RM257) and nonreactive LC (E7) were polymerized using UV light and a photomask. We used photomasks with circular, triangular, rectangular, square, star-shaped, and heart-shaped features to provide initial shapes to the objects. Then, the unreacted parts were extra...
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Electron beam (e-beam) lithography was employed to prepare one protein immobilized hydrogel encapsulated inside another by first fabricating protein-reactive hydrogels of orthogonal reactivity and subsequently conjugating the biomolecules. Exposure of thin films of eight arm star poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) functionalized with biotin (Biotin PEG), alkyne (Alkyne-PEG) or aminooxy (AO-PEG) end groups to e-beam radiation resulted in cross-linked hydrogels with the respective functionality. It was determined vi...
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A dipyrrolyl monomer was synthesized via the reaction between 4-pyrrol-1-yl phenol and decanedioyl dichloride. The electrochemical behavior of this monomer was studied. Polymerization of decanedioic acid bis-(4-pyrrol-1-yi-phenyl) ester (DAPE) was achieved by chemical and constant current electrolyses methods. Copolymerization of DAPE with thiophene was performed by constant potential electrolysis in acetonitrile-tetrabutylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TBAFB), dichloromethane-TBAFB, solvent-electrolyte couple...
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Citation Formats
E. Kharlampieva, İ. Erel Göktepe, and S. A. Sukhishvili, “Amphoteric surface hydrogels derived from hydrogen-bonded multilayers: Reversible loading of dyes and macromolecules,” LANGMUIR, pp. 175–181, 2007, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: