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Liquefaction-induced ground deformations at Hotel Sapanca during Kocaeli (Izmit),Turkey earthquake

Çetin, Kemal Önder
Youd, TL
Seed, RB
Bray, JD
Sancio, R
Lettis, W
Yimaz, MT
Durgunoglu, HT
This paper presents a study of liquefaction-induced ground deformations at the Hotel Sapanca site during the 1999 Kocaeli (Izmit)-T Turkey earthquake. The paper discusses: (1) observed ground deformations and displacements after the earthquake, (2) the results of field investigations by means of borings and in situ index tests including standard penetration tests (SPT), static cone penetration tests (CPT) and piezocone (CPTU) tests, (3) analyses of observed ground settlements and lateral deformations by a suite of methods, and (4) comparisons of observed and calculated ground movements. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.