Zero-Displacement Lateral Spreads, 1999 Kocaeli, Turkey, Earthquake

Youd, T. Leslie
Deden, Daniel W.
Bray, Jonathan D.
Sancio, Rodolfo
Çetin, Kemal Önder
Gerber, Travis M.
Three potential lateral spreads exhibited negligible displacements during the 1999 Kocaeli, Turkey Earthquake (M(w)=7.5) even though they were located within 7 km of the fault rupture. These spreads are analyzed to verify and augment current procedures for predicting liquefaction resistance and lateral spread displacement. The sites include Cark Canal and Cumhuriyet Avenue in Adapazari, underlain by fine-grained sediment, and Degirmendere Nose adjacent to Izmit Bay, a steeply sloping area underlain by moderately dense silty sand. The plasticity index and moisture content criteria of Bray and Sancio set forth in 2006 indicate that much of the fine-grained sediment is liquefiable. Even though liquefaction likely occurred, lateral spreading did not occur due either to the dilative nature of fine-grained, sandlike sediments or the inherent strength of claylike sediments. Corrected blow counts, (N(1))(60), in moderately dense sand at Degirmendere Nose range from 15 to 25 blows/30 cm, indicating that liquefaction should have occurred but that the silty sand was too dense and dilative to deform. This finding is consistent with the MLR procedure of Youd set forth in 2002 that identifies liquefiable sands with (N(1))(60) greater than 15 blows/30 cm as resistant to lateral spread during earthquakes with M < 8.


Discussion of "Liquefaction-induced lateral spreading at Izmit Bay during the Kocaeli (Izmit)-Turkey earthquake" by K. Onder Cetin, T. Leslie Youd, Raymond B. Seed, Jonathan D. Bray, Jonathan P. Stewart, H. Turan Durgunoglu, W. Lettis, and M. Tolga Yilmaz
Bakır, Bahadır Sadık (American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2006-07-01)
This paper presents a study of liquefaction-induced lateral ground displacements along the coast of Izmit Bay during the 1999 Kocaeli (Izmit)-Turkey earthquake. The paper discusses: (1) observed ground displacements after the earthquake, (2) the results of field investigations by means of borings and in situ index tests, including standard penetration tests, static cone penetration tests, and piezocone tests, (3) analyses of expected lateral displacements using two empirical models and one semiempirical mod...
Discussion of "Subsurface characterization at ground failure sites in Adapazari, Turkey" by Jonathan D. Bray, Rodolfo B. Sancio, Turan Durgunoglu, Akin Onalp, T. Leslie Youd, Jonathan P. Stewart, Raymond B. Seed, Onder K. Cetin, Ertan Bol, M. B. Baturay, C. Christensen, and T Karadayilar - July 2004, vol. 130, no. 7, pp. 673-685.
Bakır, Bahadır Sadık (American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2006-04-01)
Ground failure in Adapazari, Turkey during the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake was severe. Hundreds of structures settled, slid, tilted, and collapsed due in part to liquefaction and ground softening. Ground failure was more severe adjacent to and under buildings. The soils that led to severe building damage were generally low plasticity silts. In this paper, the results of a comprehensive investigation of the soils of Adapazari, which included cone penetration test ~CPT! profiles followed by borings with standard ...
Stability Charts for the Collapse of Residual Soil in Karst
DRUMM, Eric C.; Akturk, Oezguer; Akgün, Haluk; Tutluoğlu, Levend (American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2009-07-01)
Collapse of the residual soil over bedrock cavities often occurs during construction in karst terrain, particularly when the thickness of the residuum is reduced during excavation. Even if an estimate of the strength of the residual soil is known, uncertainty with respect to the size/geometry of the subterranean voids makes a detailed analysis difficult, and straightforward methods to check the stability are needed. In this study, numerical analyses were performed to develop a stability chart expressed in t...
Empirical attenuation equations for vertical ground motion in Turkey
Kalkan, E; Gulkan, P (SAGE Publications, 2004-08-01)
In the aftermath of two destructive urban earthquakes in 1999 in Turkey, empirical models of strong motion attenuation relationships that have been previously developed for North American and European earthquakes have been utilized in a number of national seismic hazard studies.. However, comparison of empirical evidence and estimates present significant differences. For that reason, a data set created from a suite of 100 vertical strong ground motion records from 47 national earthquakes that occurred betwe...
Geotechnical rock-mass evaluation of the Anamur dam site, Turkey
Ozsan, A; Karpuz, Celal (Elsevier BV, 1996-03-01)
This paper describes a feasibility-level geotechnical evaluation carried out at Anamur dam site, in terms of stability analysis of dam foundation, excavation slopes and a diversion tunnel. The proposed Anamur dam will be built across the Anamur river on the Alanya metamorphic series which consists of phyllite, schist and slate units at the site. Geotechnical investigations included drilling for core, pumping tests, sampling for laboratory testing, and a detailed discontinuity survey.
Citation Formats
T. L. Youd, D. W. Deden, J. D. Bray, R. Sancio, K. Ö. Çetin, and T. M. Gerber, “Zero-Displacement Lateral Spreads, 1999 Kocaeli, Turkey, Earthquake,” JOURNAL OF GEOTECHNICAL AND GEOENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING, pp. 46–61, 2009, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: