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CO2 outburst events in relation to seismicity: Constraints from microscale geochronology, geochemistry of late Quaternary vein carbonates, SW Turkey

UYSAL, I. Tonguc
ZHAO, Jian-Xin
Isik, Veysel
İmer, Ali
FENG, Yue-Xing
Vein and breccia carbonates precipitated in a highly fractured/faulted carbonate bedrock in SW Turkey were investigated through high-resolution U-series geochronology, microstructural and geochemical studies including C-O-Sr isotope and rare-earth element and yttrium (REY) analyses. Petrographical observations and geochronological data are interpreted as evidence that the calcite veins formed through a crack-seal mechanism, mostly accompanied/initiated by intensive hydraulic fracturing of the host limestone in response to high-pressure fluids, which is manifested by multi-stage breccia deposits. Microscale U-series dates (272.6-20.5 kyr) and geochemical compositions of the vein/breccia samples provide information on the timing and mechanism of the vein formation and identify the source of CO2-bearing fluids responsible for the carbonate precipitation. delta O-18(VPDB) and delta C-13(VPDB) values of the calcite veins range between -5.9 and -1.7%, and -10.6 and -4.6%, respectively. The isotopic compositions of the veins show highly fluctuating values as calcite grew successively perpendicular to vein walls, which, in combination with microstructural and geochronological constraints, are interpreted to reflect episodic CO2 degassing events associated with seismic and aseismic deformation. Oxygen and Sr isotope compositions (delta O-18(VPDB): -5.9 to -1.7%; Sr-87/Sr-86: 0.7082 to 0.7085) together with REY concentrations indicate deep infiltration of meteoric waters with various degrees of interactions mostly with the host limestone and siliciclastic parts of the basement rocks. Oxygen and carbon isotope compositions suggest CO2 degassing through intensive limestone dissolution. While majority of the veins display similar Post-Archaean Australian Shale (PAAS)-normalised REY variations, some of the veins show positive Eu-PAAS anomalies, which could be indicative of contributions from a deeply derived, heated, and reduced fluid component, giving rise to multiple fluid sources for the calcite veins. Vein calcite formed in fault-induced fractures offers insights into structural features, genetic characterisation of the parental fluids, and late Quaternary degassing of subsurface CO2 accumulations.