The Effects of Electromagnetic Brake on Liquid Steel Flow in Thin Slab Caster

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model with magneto hydro dynamics (MHD) is developed for a thin slab caster to investigate the effects of electromagnetic brake (EMBr) on liquid steel flow in continuous casting mold and to determine the EMBr practices which lead to optimal flow structure. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) tests in water model and meniscus flow measurements in real caster are performed to validate the predictions obtained with CFD models. The performance of different submerged entry nozzle designs, SEN 1 and SEN 2, are evaluated. The effects of nozzle submergence in relation to the applied magnetic field on mold flow structure are quantified. There are significant differences between flow structures obtained with SEN 1 and SEN 2, even though both designs have fundamental similarities and contain four ports. EMBr mainly reduces the meniscus velocities for SEN 2 as opposed to the foremost influence of EMBr for SEN 1 that is to significantly slow down the downward jet coming from the bottom ports. In addition, reducing the EMBr strength for shallow nozzle submergence and increasing the EMBr strength for deep nozzle submergence help to maintain similar meniscus activity for all conditions.