Late Alpine evolution of the central Menderes Massif, western Turkey

The central Menderes Massif (western Turkey) is characterized by an overall dome-shaped Alpine foliation pattern and a N-NNE-trending stretching lineation. A section through the southern flank of the central submassif along the northern margin of Buyuk Menderes graben has been studied. There, asymmetric non-coaxial fabrics indicate that the submassif has experienced two distinct phases of Alpine deformation: a top-to-the N-NNE contractional phase and a top-to-the S-SSW extensional event. The former fabrics are coeval with a regional prograde Barrovian-type metamorphism at greenschist to upper-amphibolite facies conditions. This event, known as the main Menderes metamorphism, is thought to be the result of internal imbrication of the Menderes Massif rocks along south-verging thrust sheets during the collision of the Sakarya continent in the north and the Anatolide-Tauride platform in the south across the Izmir-Ankara suture during the (?)Palaeocene-Eocene. Top-to-the S-SSW fabrics, represented by a well-developed ductile shear band foliation associated with inclined and/or curved foliation, asymmetric boudins, and cataclasites, were clearly superimposed on earlier contractional fabrics. These fabrics are interpreted to be related to a low-grade (greenschist?) retrogressive metamorphism and a continuum of deformation from ductile to brittle in the footwall rocks of a south-dipping, presently low-angle normal fault that accompanied Early Miocene orogenic collapse and continental extension in western Turkey. A similar tectono-metamorphic history has been documented for the northern flank of the dome along the southern margin of the Gediz graben with top-to-the N-NNE extensional fabrics. The exhumation of the central Menderes Massif can therefore be attributed to a model of symmetric gravity collapse of the previously thickened crust in the submassif area. The central submassif is thus interpreted as a piece of ductile lower-middle crust that was exhumed along two normal-sense shear zones with opposing vergence and may be regarded as a typical symmetrical metamorphic core complex. These relationships are consistent with previous models that the Miocene exhumation of the Menderes Massif and Cycladic Massif in the Aegean Sea was a result of bivergent extension.


Episodic, two-stage Neogene extension and short-term intervening compression in Western Turkey: field evidence from the Kiraz Basin and Bozdag Horst
Bozkurt, Erdin (2005-05-01)
Western Anatolia (Turkey) is a region of widespread active N-S continental extension that forms the eastern part of the Aegean extensional province. The extension in the region is expressed by two distinct/different structural styles, separated by a short-term gap: (1) rapid exhumation of metamorphic core complexes along presently low-angle ductile-brittle normal faults commenced by the latest Oligocene-Early Miocene period, and; (2) late stretching of crust and, consequent graben evolution along Plio-Quate...
Granitoid rocks of the southern Menderes Massif (southwestern Turkey): field evidence for Tertiary magmatism in an extensional shear zone
Bozkurt, Erdin (2004-02-01)
Recent field campaign in the southern Menderes Massif in southwestern Turkey revealed that the socalled 'core of the massif comprises two distinct types of granitoid rocks: an orthogneiss (traditionally known as augen gneisses) and leucocratic metagranite, where the latter is intrusive into the former and the structurally overlying 'cover' schists. These differ from one another in intensity of deformation, degree of metamorphism and kinematics. The orthogneiss display penetrative top-to-the-N-NNE fabrics fo...
Geochemistry and Tectonic Implications of Leucogranites and Tourmalines of the Southern Menderes Massif, Southwest Turkey
Bozkurt, Erdin; Mittwede, Steven K.; Ottley, Christopher J. (Informa UK Limited, 2006-10)
Granitoid rocks of the southern Menderes Massif, SW Turkey include widespread possibly Ediacaran high-grade granitic orthogneisses and younger (Tertiary) sheets, sills and/or dikes of variably deformed tourmaline-bearing leucogranites. The latter are confined to the immediate footwall of the regional-scale ductile southern Menderes shear zone. Although both sets of granitoid rocks are essentially calc-alkaline and peraluminous, the syn- to post-collisional tourmaline-bearing leucogranites are chemically dis...
Upper Cretaceous Radiolarian ages from an arc-back-arc within the Yuksekova Complex in the southern Neotethys melange, SE Turkey
TEKİN, UĞUR KAĞAN; Ural, Melek; Göncüoğlu, Mehmet Cemal; ARSLAN, MEHMET; KÜRÜM, SEVCAN (2015-02-01)
The Yuksekova complex in SE Turkey is a part of a continuous belt of ophiolites and subduction-accretion complexes that stretches from Troodos in the west to Oman in the east, representing the remnants of the Southern Branch of Neotethys. This complex mainly comprises a tectonically chaotic assemblage of basaltic dykes and pillow lavas associated with radiolarian cherts, shales and pelagic limestones. Detailed petrological work on submarine basaltic lavas from Elazig-Malatya area in SE Turkey revealed the p...
Evolution of a mid-Tertiary extensional shear zone in the southern Menderes massif, western Turkey
Bozkurt, Erdin (1997-01-01)
The late Oligocene evolution of the southern Menderes Massif in western Turkey involves deformation in a crustal-scale, moderately dipping, ductile shear zone. The granitic rocks of the massif have been progressively transformed to augen gneisses along the footwall of a south-dipping extensional shear zone. The augen gneisses are strongly mylonitic and exhibit a moderately dipping foliation variably associated with a pronounced NNE- to NNW- trending mineral elongation lineation. The non-coaxial fabrics form...
Citation Formats
E. Bozkurt, “Late Alpine evolution of the central Menderes Massif, western Turkey,” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EARTH SCIENCES, pp. 728–744, 2001, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: