Liposomes as immunological adjuvants and vaccine carriers

Gregoriadis, G
Gursel, I
Gürsel, Mayda
McCormack, B
Work by numerous laboratories in the last two decades has shown that liposomes promote humoral and cell-mediated immunity to a large variety of bacterial, protozoan, viral and tumour cell antigens. This immunoadjuvant action of liposomes depends on their structural characteristics which control vesicle fate in vivo including the mode of antigen interaction with antigen-presenting cells. Liposomal adjuvanticity is further promoted by receptor mediated targeting to macrophages or the presence of co-adjuvants including cytokines. The immunoadjuvant action of liposomes is supplemented by their ability to act as a carrier for co-entrapped B and T-cell epitopes, thus eliminating the need for a carrier protein. A technique has been developed recently for the entrapment of live microbial vaccines into giant liposomes under conditions which retain their viability. Such liposomes (containing microbial vaccines and other soluble antigens or cytokines if required) could be used as carriers of vaccines in cases where there is a need to prevent interaction of vaccines with maternal antibodies or preformed antibodies to vaccine impurities.


Differential immune activation following encapsulation of immunostimulatory CpG oligodeoxynucleotide in nanoliposomes.
Erikçi, E; Gürsel, Mayda; Gürsel, I (2011-02-01)
The immunogenicity of a vaccine formulation is closely related to the effective internalization by the innate immune cells that provide prolonged and simultaneous delivery of antigen and adjuvant to relevant antigen presenting cells. Endosome associated TLR9 recognizes microbial unmethylated CpG DNA. Clinical applications of TLR9 ligands are significantly hampered due to their pre-mature in vivo digestion and rapid clearance. Liposome encapsulation is a powerful tool to increase in vivo stability as well as...
Forging a potent vaccine adjuvant: CpG ODN/cationic peptide nanorings
Gungor, Bilgi; Yagci, Fuat Cem; GÜRSEL, İHSAN; Gürsel, Mayda (2014-07-01)
Type I interferon inducers may potentially be engineered to function as antiviral and anticancer agents, or alternatively, vaccine adjuvants, all of which may have clinical applications. We recently described a simple strategy to convert a Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonist devoid of interferon alpha (IFN alpha) stimulating activity into a robust Type I interferon inducer with potent vaccine adjuvant activity.
Characterisation of immune responses in type I interferon associated diseases
Gül, Ersin; Gürsel, Mayda; Department of Biology (2016)
Type-I interferonopathies are a heterogeneous group of diseases arising from deregulation in nucleic acid sensing pathways, leading to constitutive type-I interferon release and pathology. DNA damage, if not repaired can also potentially activate such pathways. To test the hypothesis that 2 different DNA damage repair and immune deficiencies, Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) and Artemis deficiency could suffer from clinical manifestations associated with elevated type I IFN response, we compared the immune status...
Immunotherapeutic applications of CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotides
Klinman, DM; Ishii, KJ; Gürsel, Mayda; Gursel, I; Takeshita, S; Takeshita, F (2000-06-01)
Bacterial DNA and synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) expressing unmethylated CpG motifs stimulate the mammalian immune system to mount a rapid innate immune response. This response is characterized by the production of polyreactive IgM, immunomodulatory cytokines and chemokines. CpG ODN directly stimulate lymphocytes, natural killer cells and professional antigen-presenting cells (such as macrophages and dendritic cells). Owing to the strength and nature of this stimulation, CpG ODN are being harnessed f...
Label-free enrichment of MCF7 breast cancer cells from leukocytes using continuous flow dielectrophoresis
Arslan, Zeynep Caglayan; Yalcin, Yagmur Demircan; Külah, Haluk (2022-04-01)
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) present in the bloodstream are strongly linked to the invasive behavior of cancer; therefore, their detection holds great significance for monitoring disease progression. Currently available CTC isolation tools are often based on tumor-specific antigen or cell size approaches. However, these techniques are limited due to the lack of a unique and universal marker for CTCs, and the overlapping size between CTCs and regular blood cells. Dielectrophoresis (DEP), governed by the in...
Citation Formats
G. Gregoriadis, I. Gursel, M. Gürsel, and B. McCormack, “Liposomes as immunological adjuvants and vaccine carriers,” JOURNAL OF CONTROLLED RELEASE, pp. 49–56, 1996, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: