Combined-free flow over weirs and below gates

2004-01-01
Negm, AAM
Al-Brahim, AM
Alhamid, AA
Sakarya, BA
Aydın, İsmail
Ger, AM
The results of an experimental investigation on the characteristics of the combined flow over contracted sharp-crested rectangular weirs and below contracted sharp-crested rectangular gates are presented. The experiments are carried out in a laboratory flume using various geometrical dimensions under different flow conditions. The basic principles are employed to correlate the discharge to the relevant geometrical and hydraulic parameters in nondimensional form. The experimental data are then used to develop a general nondimensional equation for predicting the discharge through the combined system knowing its geometry and the head of water over the weir. It was found that only one equation describes both horizontal and sloping channels with either mild or steep slopes. Also, the modular limit for combined flow is discussed and an equation for its calculation is presented as well. The effects of viscosity and surface tension are addressed in terms of Reynolds number and Weber number.