Efficient fabrication of ultrafine-grained 316L stainless steel surfaces for orthopaedic applications

Tufan, Yiğithan
Demir, Eyüp Can
Efe, Mert
Ercan, Batur
Commonly used severe plastic deformation (SPD) methods are suitable for fabrication of bulk nano and ultrafine-grained metals. Drawbacks of these methods include durability of dies, geometrical restrictions and reduced ductility of the products. In this study, two common machining techniques used in manufacturing of orthopaedic components, turning and milling, were applied on 316L stainless steel as surface SPD to refine the surface microstructures of the workpiece. Machining with optimised parameters resulted in substantial grain refinement down to 98 nm on the surfaces. Biological experiments showed up to ∼70% and ∼280% increased bone cell density on milled and turned samples compared to conventionally machined 316L stainless steel at 5 days, which was correlated with nanocrystallisation and nanoroughness of the samples.