Perception Differences in Ambiguous Forms of Workplace Sexual Harassment: A Comparison between the United States and Turkey

Toker Gültaş, Yonca
Certain social-sexual behaviors that could be potentially encountered in workplaces are ambiguous in nature and perceiving them as sexual harassment can depend on the culture. With an aim to delineate the overlap and distinctions of sexual harassment perceptions of such behaviors across samples of women university students from Turkey (TR, N = 215) and the United States (US, N = 209), measurement invariance and latent mean differences in perceiving three ambiguous forms; sexist hostility, sexual hostility, and insinuation-of-interest, were examined. It was hypothesized that the US sample would perceive sexist hostility more sexually harassing as sexist workplace discriminatory practices are emphasized as a form of sexual harassment, and that the TR sample would perceive sexual hostility and insinuation-of-interest as more sexually harassing as women in TR operate in a conservative context. Despite similarities in rank ordering, US participants perceived sexist hostility more sexually harassing; insinuation-of-interest and sexual hostility less sexually harassing than Turkish participants, supporting all three hypotheses. There are implications of differing perceptions across cultures for organizations in terms of disseminating awareness via training programs about the forms of sexual harassment (SH) in a local context and for taking account of local findings in shaping the labor code of countries in relation to SH.


Cultural factors as associates of workplace sexual harassment perceptions and coping preferences
Dinçal, Didem; Toker, Yonca; Department of Psychology (2019)
The present study examined the association of cultural variables which were liberalism/conservatism, uncertainty avoidance, ambivalent sexism, and organizational climate related to workplace Sexual Harassment (SH) with perceiving the ambiguous forms of social-sexual incidents namely sexist hostility, sexual hostility, and insinuation of interest as SH. Women’s coping preferences for different forms of SH were examined on an exploratory basis. Data were collected from 226 women and 154 men employers who were...
Individual differences factors affecting workplace sexual harassment perceptions
Toker, Yonca; Sümer, Hayriye Canan; Department of Psychology (2003)
The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of individual differences on Sexual Harassment (SH) perceptions at the workplace. Specifically, the effects of attitudes toward women's gender roles and personality attributes (i.e., self-esteem and emotional affectivity) on SH perceptions were examined. Another purpose of the study was to explore the stereotype domains of sexual harassers and to compare it with those of managers. A preliminary study was conducted by interviewing 56 Turkis...
Discrimination against police women : a case of Turkish policewomen in Ankara
Demir, Murat Cem; Özcan, Yusuf Ziya; Department of Sociology (2003)
The aim in this study is to uncover the occupational discrimination and sexual harassment against the policewomen in Ankara, and to determine whether or not these two negative conditions can explain the stress burden of policewomen. A total number of 125 respondents have been interviewed. We divided the respondents into two groups, according to where they are employed, namely those of General Directorate of Police (EGM = The centre) and of Police Directorate of Ankara (AEM = The periphery), so that we can m...
Emic and etic aspects of sexual harassment perceptions in Turkey.
Toker, Yonca (null; 2009-04-03)
The purpose of this study was identifying workplace sexual harassment perceptions in the Turkish context. The factor structure of perceptions was explored and a reduced model was tested via confirmatory factor analysis. By referring to the U.S. literature, the extent to which perceptions are emic or etic is discussed.
Predictors of Turkish Women's and Men's Attitudes toward Sexual Harassment: Ambivalent Sexism, and Ambivalence Toward Men
Sakallı, Nuray; Turgut, Sinem (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2010-12-01)
This study examined the relationships among ambivalent sexism (hostile/benevolent), ambivalence toward men (hostility/benevolence) and Turkish women/men's attitudes toward sexual harassment, including attitudes toward viewing sexual harassment as a result of provocative behaviors of women (ASHPBW) and attitudes toward viewing sexual harassment as a trivial matter (ASHTM). Participants included 220 Turkish undergraduates (136 female; M(age) = 20.00). They tended to blame women for the incidents of sexual har...
Citation Formats
Y. Toker Gültaş, “Perception Differences in Ambiguous Forms of Workplace Sexual Harassment: A Comparison between the United States and Turkey,” JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY, pp. 625–643, 2016, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: