Sedimentology, cyclostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy and geochemistry of the middle eocene lacustrine-marine oil-shales transition, Mudurnu Göynük basin, NW Anatolia, Turkey

Afridi, Bakht Zamir
Continuous studied successions of the Middle Eocene, Mudurnu-Göynük basin, in the NW Anatolia indicate a transition from marine-influence lacustrine to marine environment due to the relative rise in sea-level, which was separated by barrier deposits. Different lithofacies are identified in the studied sections, including limestone, marl, oil-shale, calcareous sandstone, conglomeratic and bio-calcirudite. Number of fossil assemblages are recorded including ostracods, charophyte gyrogonites, gastropods, bivalve and b enthic foraminifera, rare fish-teeth-scale, echinoderms, algal filamentous and plant fragments. The recorded ostracod interprets Oligo-Mesohaline lacustrine environment, which is overlain by marine environment. Based on the detailed facies analysis, the depositional environment is characterized as relatively marginal to deep lacustrine- marine deposits, floodplain to paralic-marine deposits, from south to north. The lacustrine deposits indicate balanced-fill type lake setting within the regime in foreland setting in relation to İzmir-Ankara suture. The centimeter-meter scale order cycles show symmetrical to asymmetrical transgressive-regressive cycles, which is due to repetitive change in the water-depth and/or fluctuating sediments influx. The cm-m scale cycles correspond to Milankovitch obliquity band and indicate climatic control linked with the earth`s orbital forces and local tectonics. In the sequence framework, the successions indicate marine transgression onto lacustrine en vironment in the region. The studied sections indicate a change from TST to HST in lacustrine-marine deposits. Lacustrine and Marine oil-shales in the studied area are interpreted that they have a possible source rock potential in the central and north, and in the south of the basin.


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The Yılanlı Formation of Upper Devonian to Lower Carboniferous succession of the Zonguldak region were measured from Gökgöl section near Zonguldak city, NW Turkey. The studied section dominantly consists of limestone of grey – dark grey color with thin to thick beds of black shale and claystone. A variety of lithofacies identified in the studied section including limestone, dolomite, shale, claystone and mudstone. Nine microfacies are identified as grainstone, packstone, wackstone, mudstone, bindstone, ruds...
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Atasoy, Serdar Görkem; Altıner, Demir; Department of Geological Engineering (2017)
This study focuses on the biostratigraphy, microfacies analyses and the tectonic interpretation of an Upper Jurassic – Lower Cretaceous carbonate succession widely exposed in a tectonic klippe of the Sakarya Zone (Pontides), north of Sivrihisar region (Eskişehir). For this purpose two stratigraphic sections were measured (925 m thick in total) along the carbonate rocks that crop out north of the Dümrek Village. According to the biozonation and the microfacies types, two coeval but dissimiliar depositional d...
ERGIN, M; OKYAR, M; TIMUR, K (Elsevier BV, 1992-02-29)
High-resolution shallow-seismic reflection (Uniboom) profiles obtained in inner and mid-shelf areas of eastern Mersin Bay (Turkey, northeastern Mediterranean) show that the sedimentary column comprises two major and distinct lithological sequences (C and B) separated by a reflector (R) which is interpreted as the pre-Holocene surface. The upper sedimentary sequence (C) is thought to represent roughly the Holocene and is characterized by parallel/divergent to sigmoidal reflection patterns above (Unit 1) and ...
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The whole Mediterranean was a site of carbonate deposition during Miocene. Unlike other Miocene basins in the Mediteranean, the importance of Mut Basin lies in its tectonically undisturbed nature that provides excellent exposures to study sequence stratigraphic architecture and carbonate sedimentology. Opening of Mut Basin began during Oligocene; carbonate deposition started during Early Miocene. The pre-Miocene rocks are characterized by (from bottom to top), 1. ophiolites and Mesozoic limestones, 2. Eocen...
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High-resolution shallow seismic-reflection profiles obtained from the western Mersin Bay have revealed the existence of the two distinct depositional sequences (C and B) lying on a narrow and relatively steeply-sloping continental shelf which mainly receives its sediments from the ephemeral rivers. The upper Holocene sedimentary sequence (C) is characterized by stratified (simple to complex) to chaotic reflection configurations produced by the development of a prograding wedge of terrigenous sediment. Parti...
Citation Formats
B. Z. Afridi, “Sedimentology, cyclostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy and geochemistry of the middle eocene lacustrine-marine oil-shales transition, Mudurnu Göynük basin, NW Anatolia, Turkey,” Thesis (Ph.D.) -- Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences. Geological Engineering., Middle East Technical University, 2019.