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Archaeometric investigations of glass from the early Byzantine workshop in Side, Antalya

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2019
Genç, Deniz
Reconstructing the history of archeological artifacts leads us to examine the materials using various scientific methods. Therefore, archaeometric investigations allow us to understand the production technology, the firing temperature, provenance, the raw materials and the colorants used in the process. This thesis aims to investigate the archaeological glasses found at the Side excavation site. Visual and optical microscope analyses were conducted to observe the physical shape, deterioration types, and the production technology of Side glass. According to the thickness measurements and their bubble shapes, Side glasses from the Late Antique period were shaped by the glass blowing technique. The color analysis has revealed that the Side glasses in various color ranges were mainly in green and blue hues. The chemical analysis of the Side glasses was conducted by Polarized Energy Dispersive- X-ray Fluorescence (PED-XRF). The results of the analysis were interpreted with respect to main, minor and trace elements. In line with these results, Side glass set was a soda-lime-silica glass fluxed with natron. The vast majority of the glasses were decolorized by the deliberate addition of manganese. The colorants are iron, copper, cobalt, manganese, vanadium, and lead. Recycling conditions were revealed using the marker elements and a comparative plot of Side and primary production glasses. In accordance with the glass composition, glass groups were identified by hierarchical clustering and were compared with Late Antique glass from Asia Minor. Furthermore, clay-based crucibles and kiln fragments were analyzed by the thin section optical microscopy. Petrographical properties of the crucibles were demonstrated in terms of rock and mineral contents, the exposed firing temperature and their origins.