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The effects of emulsifier type, phase ratio, and homogenization methods on stability of the double emulsion

The double emulsion technology has a potential effect on the development of diversity and quality of functional foods by means of decreasing oil or salt concentration, encapsulating and controlling release of valuable components. In this study, it was aimed to formulate stable double emulsions to be used in food systems. W1/O ratios of primary emulsions, stabilized by polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR), were designed as 2:8 and 4:6, and (W1/O)/W2 ratios of the double emulsions were used as 2:8 and 4:6. W/O/W phase ratios, homogenization methods applied to primary emulsion (high-speed homogenization, ultrasonic homogenization), and emulsifier types used in W2 phase [sodium caseinate (SC), xanthan gum, lecithin-whey protein concentrate] were used as independent variables. Particle size and distributions, stability, encapsulation efficiency (EE), rheological properties, long-term stability, and morphological properties of the double emulsions were investigated.The double emulsions prepared with SC and (W1/O)/W2 ratio of 4:6, were found to have the higher stability values, higher apparent viscosity, and lower particle size. High-speed homogenization applied to primary emulsion reduced particle size of the double emulsion and increased apparent viscosity, but did not affect stability and EE of the double emulsions, significantly.