Effects of different type of waxes on cocoa cream

Çiftçi, Selcan
Recently, the negative health effects of saturated and trans fatty acids are the hot topics for human health. It was found that, excessive consumption of saturated fatty acid correlated with the health problems. The most used fat, containing high saturated fatty acid, is the palm oil in the fast moving consumer goods. In this study, oleogelation technique was tried to be used to decrease the saturated fat content of the cocoa cream containing palm oil. Two types of oleogels were developed by using carnauba wax (CW) and beeswax (BW) at different concentrations (5% and 8%) and high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) was chosen as liquid phase. Two types of oleogels at different concentrations were replaced with the palm oil in cocoa cream with different ratios (50% and 100%). Crystal formation time, solid fat content (SFC), fatty acid composition, oxidative stability, textural and rheological behavior were analyzed. The results showed that, 50% and 100% replacement with palm oil decreased the saturated fat content in cocoa cream from 57% to 33-34% and 9-10% respectively. SFC ratio of the oleogel cocoa creams were not significantly different from palm oil at 35 ˚C (~ body temperature) (p>0.05). Peroxide and acidity of the oleogel cocoa creams did not exceed the acceptable limit during 3 months storage. However, BW oleogels were not as good as the CW oleogels. Wax type, wax vi concentration significantly affected the hardness of the oleogels (p<0.05). Because G' > G" in oleogel cocoa creams, they were regarded as elastic gels.


Dilek, Filiz Bengü; Yetiş, Ülkü (Informa UK Limited, 1991-11-01)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the toxic effects of Cu(II) on a chemostat containing activated sludge. Different concentrations of Cu(II) (0.5, 1.0, 5.0, and 10.0 mgL-1) were maintained in a laboratory-scale completely mixed activated sludge unit, without recycle, treating simulated wastewater. The feed solution contained 650 mgL-1 protein (corresponding to 1300 mgL-1 COD) as a source of carbon. Experimental results indicated that the treatment efficiency was not adversely effected by the presenc...
Effect of different flours on quality of gluten-free wafer sheet
Mert, Selen; Şahin, Serpil; Şümnü, Servet Gülüm; Department of Food Engineering (2014)
Lifelong gluten-free diet is essential for patients having celiac disease. Since wheat flour contains gluten, it is necessary to replace wheat flour with other types of gluten-free flours. Rice flour is commonly used in gluten-free baked products as an alternative to wheat flour. The main objective of this study was to develop gluten-free wafer sheet formulations by replacing rice flour partially with different gluten-free flours at different ratios. Rice-corn flour blends, rice-buckwheat flour blends and r...
Ketenoglu, Onur; Mert, Behiç; Tekin, Aziz (Wiley, 2014-08-01)
This study aims to determine the stability improving effects of size-reduced dietary fibers in food emulsions. Orange zest fiber and corn fiber were microfluidized under high pressure (up to 15,000 psi). Model emulsions were prepared by adding 1, 2 and 3% of the fibers into the mixture of 3% whey protein isolate and 20 and 50% oil. These mixtures were homogenized through both colloid mill and microfluidizer to form model emulsions. Rheological properties such as flow and oscillation were measured with frequ...
Effect of boiling, roasting and frying on disintegration of peanuts in simulated gastric environment
Kong, Fanbin; Öztop, Halil Mecit; SINGH, R. Paul; MCCARTHY, Michael J. (2013-01-01)
The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of boiling, roasting and frying on the digestion of peanuts in simulated gastric environment. Raw and processed peanuts were tested for disintegration in a model stomach system. The differences in disintegration rate were explained with respect to the changes in moisture absorption and texture. The absorption of moisture and the swelling of peanuts during gastric digestion were studied using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). The results show that ...
Effects of different formulations on the quality of microwave baked breads
Ozmutlu, O; Şümnü, Servet Gülüm; Şahin, Serpil (2001-01-01)
Effects of different amounts of gluten, fat, emulsifier. and dextrose on the quality of breads baked in the microwave oven were investigated. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the formulation of microwave baked breads. Firmness, specific volume, and weight loss of the breads were determined. Breads formulated with low gluten flour were softer and had higher volume. Volume of these breads can be comparable with the volume of conventionally baked breads. For breads formulated with flour contai...
Citation Formats
S. Çiftçi, “Effects of different type of waxes on cocoa cream,” Thesis (M.S.) -- Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences. Food Engineering., Middle East Technical University, 2019.