Suçluluk duyguları nosebo ağrı tepkilerini güçlendirebilir mi?

<p><span style="left: 172.31px; top: 384.231px; font-size: 14.1667px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.04081);">Objectives:</span><span style="left: 245.166px; top: 384.755px; font-size: 14.1667px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.958474);"> Psychodynamically, chronic pain problems with no organic cause have been conceptualized as a punishment </span><span style="left: 172.31px; top: 403.087px; font-size: 14.1667px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.977293);">through physical pain for guilt feelings. This study aimed to investigate the effects of conscious guilt feelings on nocebo </span><span style="left: 172.31px; top: 421.419px; font-size: 14.1667px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.925995);">pain responses and whether the resultant nocebo pain would affect conscious guilt feelings in the form of expiation </span><span style="left: 172.31px; top: 439.75px; font-size: 14.1667px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.986348);">through the pain.</span><span style="left: 172.31px; top: 459.927px; font-size: 14.1667px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.993152);"><br>Methods:</span><span style="left: 229.912px; top: 460.451px; font-size: 14.1667px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.907492);"> An experiment was conducted with 100 participants. There were two independent variables, which were guilt induction </span><span style="left: 172.31px; top: 478.782px; font-size: 14.1667px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.905541);">(guilt-no guilt) and nocebo manipulation (nocebo-no nocebo). Nocebo manipulation was done by telling the participants that they </span><span style="left: 172.31px; top: 497.114px; font-size: 14.1667px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.893764);">would receive electricity from an EEG cap. In addition, they watched a video in which a confederate imitates having pain during the </span><span style="left: 172.31px; top: 515.446px; font-size: 14.1667px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.896628);">procedure. There were two dependent variables, guilt feelings, and experienced pain. Guilt feelings were measured using Positive </span><span style="left: 172.31px; top: 533.777px; font-size: 14.1667px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.907655);">and Negative Affect Scale twice, once after guilt induction and once after nocebo pain manipulation. Subjective pain scores were </span><span style="left: 172.31px; top: 552.109px; font-size: 14.1667px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.900216);">measured by using a basic 0 to 10 visual pain scale, on which the participants reported how much pain they experienced.<br></span><span style="left: 172.31px; top: 572.289px; font-size: 14.1667px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.965);">Results:</span><span style="left: 221.525px; top: 572.813px; font-size: 14.1667px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.935153);"> The findings revealed that only the main effect of nocebo was significant.</span><span style="left: 172.31px; top: 592.986px; font-size: 14.1667px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.991475);"><br>Conclusion:</span><span style="left: 245.679px; top: 593.511px; font-size: 14.1667px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.886871);"> The participants reported mild headaches in the absence of any physical stimulation after nocebo manipula-</span><span style="left: 172.31px; top: 611.842px; font-size: 14.1667px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.939398);">tions. The effect was observed in a standard laboratory environment. Non-physical nocebo pain induction could create pain, </span><span style="left: 172.31px; top: 630.174px; font-size: 14.1667px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.952745);">but conscious guilt induction did not increase the amount of reported nocebo pain, and resultant pain did not function as a </span><span style="left: 172.31px; top: 648.506px; font-size: 14.1667px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(0.94738);">punishment. Limitations and implications of the study were discussed.</span><br></p>