Attitudes towards seeking psychological help among a sample of Turkish university students: the roles of rumination and internal working models

Turan, Numan
Erdur Baker, Özgür
The current study investigates how attitudes towards seeking psychological help relate to internal working models of attachment (self-model and other-model) and ruminative tendencies. The study includes 589 Turkish university students (278 females, 308 males and 3 unknown) by implementing a convenient sampling procedure. The average age of the participants was 22.4 years (SD = 2.2). Participants were administered the Attitudes toward Seeking Psychological Help-Short, the Relationship Questionnaire and the Rumination Scale. The results of the study indicate that the other-model and rumination have a relationship to women's help-seeking attitudes whereas the self-model has a relationship to men's help-seeking attitudes. The results are discussed in light of the related literature.


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This study examined the relations of ruminative tendency and internal working models of attachment (Self-Model and Other-Model) to psychological symptoms among the Turkish university students. The sample comprised of 610 university students with 288 female and 319 male participants (3 unknown). The results revealed that both rumination and internal working models (self-model and other-model) significantly correlated with the higher level of psychological symptoms. However, after controlled for the impact of...
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Citation Formats
N. Turan and Ö. Erdur Baker, “Attitudes towards seeking psychological help among a sample of Turkish university students: the roles of rumination and internal working models,” BRITISH JOURNAL OF GUIDANCE & COUNSELLING, pp. 86–98, 2014, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: