Recent advances in the biosynthesis of penicillins, cephalosporins and clavams and its regulation

The beta-lactam antibiotics have been serving mankind for over 70 years. Despite this old age, they continue to provide health to the world population by virtue of industrial production and discoveries of new secondary metabolite molecules with useful activities. Sales of these remarkable compounds have reached over $20 billion dollars per year. They include penicillins, cephalosporins, cefoxitin, monobactams, clavulanic acid and carbapenems. Strain improvement of the penicillin-producing species of Penicillium has been truly remarkable, with present strains producing about 100,000 times more penicillin that the original Penicillium notatum of Alexander Fleming. A tremendous amount of information has been gathered on the biosynthetic enzymes involved, the pathways of biosynthesis of beta-lactams as well as their regulation, and the genomics and proteomics of the producing organisms. Modern aspects of the processes are discussed in the present review including genetics, molecular biology, metabolic engineering, genomics and proteomics.


Recombinant therapeutic protease production by Bacillus sp.
Korkmaz, Nuriye; Çalık, Pınar; Department of Chemical Engineering (2007)
The first aim of this study is the development of extracellular recombinant therapeutic protease streptokinase producing Bacillus sp., and the second aim is to determine fermentation characteristics for streptokinase production. In this context, the signal (pre-) DNA sequence of B.licheniformis (DSM1969) extracellular serine alkaline protease enzyme gene (subC: Acc. No. X03341) was ligated to 5’ end of the streptokinase gene (skc: Acc. No. S46536) by SOE (Gene Splicing by Overlap Extension) method through P...
The effects of twelve quorum-sensing gene products on the expression of bacabcde operon in bacillus subtilis
Öğülür, İsmail; Özcengiz, Gülay; Department of Biotechnology (2008)
In Bacillus subtilis, genetic competence, sporulation and antibiotic production are controlled by quorum-sensing global regulatory mechanism. Bacilysin, being produced and excreted by certain strains of Bacillus subtilis, is a dipeptide antibiotic composed of L-alanine and L-anticapsin. We showed that the biosynthesis of bacilysin is under the control of quorum sensing global regulatory pathway through the action of ComQ/ComX, PhrC (CSF), ComP/ComA in a Spo0K (Opp)-dependent manner. Recently, the ywfBCDEF g...
Design of intelligent nanoparticles for use in controlled release
Bayyurt, Banu; Hasırcı, Vasıf Nejat; Department of Biotechnology (2009)
The aim of this project was to design an intelligent controlled release system based on thermoresponsive nanoparticles for cancer therapy and to evaluate the efficiencies of these systems with in vitro cell culture. Poly(Nisopropylacrylamide), an important thermoresponsive polymer, was selected for this study to prepare the responsive nanoparticles. This polymer has an lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of 32 oC, below which it is hydrophilic and above this temperature, it shows hydrophobic behavior...
Comparison of benzaldehyde lyase production capacity in recombinant Escherichia coli and recombinant Bacillus species
Kaya, Hande; Çalık, Pınar; Department of Chemical Engineering (2006)
In this study, the benzaldehyde lyase (BAL, EC production in E. coli BL21 (DE3) pLySs as intracellular and in Bacillus species as extracellular were investigated, and comparison of the production capacity of the enzyme in the developed recombinant microorganisms were compared. For this purpose, firstly, PCR amplified bal gene was cloned into pRSETA vector which is under the control of strong T7 promoter and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS strain. With developed recombinant E. coli BL21 (DE3)...
Development of analysis methods for cry1ac and sam-k gene lines in tomato using pcr and real-time pcr
Uygun, Sahra; Gültekin, Güzin Candan; Department of Biotechnology (2010)
Genetically modified organisms are entering the human diet in all over the world. In order to have transparency in the foods that are being consumed, there is a need to trace the genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in the market and consequently this need brings the necessity of analytical methods that are capable of detecting, identifying and quantifying the transgenic events. These analytical methods also form the basis of the labeling regulations that are tried to be formed regarding GMOs. The main aim...
Citation Formats
G. Özcengiz, “Recent advances in the biosynthesis of penicillins, cephalosporins and clavams and its regulation,” BIOTECHNOLOGY ADVANCES, pp. 287–311, 2013, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: