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Diabetes induces compositional, structural and functional alterations on rat skeletal soleus muscle revealed by FTIR spectroscopy: a comparative study with EDL muscle

Bozkurt, Ozlem
Severcan, Mete
Severcan, Feride
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder, characterized by abnormally high blood glucose levels due to decreased secretion or effectiveness in function of insulin. Having a role in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, skeletal muscle is affected by the absence of insulin in diabetic conditions. This current study reports the application of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in the determination of macromolecular alterations in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat skeletal Soleus (SOL) muscles, which highlight the promise of this technique in medical research. The results revealed that DM induced several alterations in macromolecular content and structure of slow-contracting SOL muscles. In diabetic SOL muscles, a decrease in the content of lipids, proteins and nucleic acids together with an increase in lipid order was observed. The decrease in the level of unsaturation and acyl chain length of lipids demonstrated the increased lipid peroxidation in DM. There were alterations in protein secondary structure in DM with a decrease in alpha-helix and beta-sheet content of proteins, whereas the content of aggregated beta-strands increased, which is generally seen when proteins denature. Besides, the integrity of collagen molecules was found to be decreased, demonstrating the alterations in its triple helical structure in diabetic muscles. Furthermore, the same alterations mentioned above were also observed in diabetic fast-contracting Extensor Digitorum Longus (EDL) muscles. However, having a high content of mitochondria and relying on an oxidative pathway, SOL muscle was found to be more affected by DM.