İkinci Meşrutiyet Döneminde Ulusal Mimari Üzerindeki Batı Etkileri (1908-1918)

Yıldırım, Yavuz
Nationalism as an ideal is known to be the result of social and political developments within the European community, during the course of the 19th century. This ideal, which caused the heart-lifting events of the past century in the western world, was also responsible, in a certain way, for the gradual disintegration and the final collapse of the Ottoman Empire. The Greek war of independence and the establishment of the modern Greek State in 1830, set the example for a series of similar revolutions, mainly in the Balkan provinces of the Empire. By the end of the First World War, they all had successfully reached their goals of national independence. It was after another four years of internal strife that the Ottoman Dynasty was abolished and the modern Turkish State was established on the remaining lands of the Empire. Turkish Nationalism was undoubtedly an outcome of European Nationalism. It's effects on the Turkish elite who had got used to associate himself with the West throughout the 19th century, was immense. The newlv formed Ottoman middle class, educated in western terms and appreciative of it's merits, were the passionate supporters of the movement. Purification of the language and the increased volume of the press communication were of great help in disseminating the new ideas. Turcification of the old amalgamated culture was progressitıg rapidly on a western basis. European literary forms were structuring the National Literatüre. The piano was finding it's way into Turkish music as a new instrument, and the vestern style painting with local subjects became a popular art form at the state capital. In this lively atmosphere, the architecture of the decade found itself a national style under the guidance of two young Turkish archîtects: Vedat Bey and Kemalettin Bey. Their struggles were unfortunately limited to the treatment of the facades iti true Ottoman proportions. In reality their massing and plan layouts were not too different frora what was being done in the European market, and this was undobtedly due to the fortnal education they had received from foreign istructors. Hovever, their struggles to revive the graundeur of 16tb century Ottoman architecture thıough the use of the classical Ottoman arcbitectural elements, fortned the peak of Ottoman Eclecticism , in parallel to European Eclectic Revivalism. A critical analyais of Kemalettin Bey's buildings built during the last decade of the Ottomans, reveals to us that, behind the glittering main façades of these pretentious edifices, one can witness the last struggles of an Empire, trying to hold on in a world of international intrigue and economic imperialism. New dimensions in business interactions, and International commerce uhich had developed the capital town out of it's walled-in confinement, was drastically altering the cultural heritage and the historical entity. Important religious and ethic values were altnost totally forgotten, and the last religious edifices of the Empire became so insignificant that they had no chance of comparison with their counterparts in the new business world. Uhat was really achieved by this set of pompous buildings, which drained the last resources of the Empire on material imports and technical assistance, was a nostalgic view of the past glories on the brink of extinction.


Transforming an Empire: The Ottoman Empire's Immigration and Settlement Policies in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries
Kale Lack, Başak (2014-03-04)
The Ottoman Empire's immigration and settlement policies were redefined in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries as a result of the population movements caused by the rise of nationalism, wars and territorial losses. With changing demographics and the acceptance of a new citizenship concept by the Tanzimat Edict in 1839, the millet system which had previously secured the multi-ethnic and multi-religious nature of the empire for centuries was challenged. The central argument of the paper is that the O...
Old and New Problems in the Balkans and Marxism
Türkeş, Mustafa (2018-12-01)
Efforts to determine the place of Marxism in the Balkans in a historical manner seem to enable us to outline not only the historical importance of Marxism but also to point out more precisely its relevance with contemporary problems and possible solutions in the Balkans. In order to outline very briefly the place of Marxism in the Balkans, this paper first seeks to discuss the old (late 19th, early 20th) and new (late 20th, early 21st century) common problems people in the Balkans encountered with a view to...
Procreation, family and 'progress': Administrative and economic aspects of Ottoman population policies in the 19th century
Dursun, Selçuk (Informa UK Limited, 2011-06-15)
The making of the modern Ottoman state in the 19th century was closely interrelated with population issues and policies. 'Population' became an important component of Ottoman history throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries. As the state identified the 'population' as a source of income after the Tanzimat, it tried to protect and procreate it through certain institutional arrangements and regulations. These policies consisted of protecting the existing population, controlling population movements, promo...
The formation of Iraqi nationalism under The British mandate (1920- 1932)
Akın, Pırıl; Boztemur, Recep; Department of Middle East Studies (2009)
This thesis examines the development of a national identity and the ideology of nationalism, and the formation of nation-state in Iraq under the British Mandate from 1920 to 1932. The study focuses on the influences of the early Arab nationalist movements during the last decades of the Ottoman Empire and under the British Mandate over Iraqi nationalism and nation-state process. The study specifically examines the Mosul question and its effects on the formation of the territorial unity of the state in Iraq. ...
Enlightenment and Global History (ENGLOBE)
Peker, Ali Uzay(2013-10-31)
"ENGLOBE (""Enlightenment and Global History"") is a projected network of researchers concerned with Europe’s role in the process of globalization. Its thematic aims are located in the newly emerging supra-disciplinary field of Global History which provides a highly useful mode of reflection on the cultural and historical dimension of globalization processes. The Enlightenment has a double significance within this field. It was the first moment in history when questions and problems arising out of globaliza...
Citation Formats
Y. Yıldırım, “İkinci Meşrutiyet Döneminde Ulusal Mimari Üzerindeki Batı Etkileri (1908-1918),” ODTÜ Mimarlık Fakültesi Dergisi, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 9–34, 1976, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: http://jfa.arch.metu.edu.tr/archive/0258-5316/1976/cilt02/sayi_1/9-34.pdf.