Archaeometric Studies at Yivli Minare in Antalya

Akyol, Ali Akin
Demirci, Şahinde
The 13th century Seljuk construction Yivli Minare, or the Fluted Minaret, located in the city identity of Antalya, stands independently to the east of a mosque of the same name. For the conservation of the Yivli Minare, the Yivli Minare Relevé, Restitution and Restoration Project was initiated. The monument was analysed for archaeometrical purposes as well. Within these studies the structural materials (stone, brick, mortar and plaster) and decorative materials (tiles and their glaze) were examined for their basic physical properties and chemical characteristics, as well as their mineralogical/petrographic structures. Colors, electrical conductivity, amount of water soluble salt, salt types and raw material contents were also examined. The building stones used for the construction of the minaret were travertine that was formed with cold and hot water sedimentation reflecting local formation. In addition, types of rocks (AYM-T1) used for repairs were also identified (as marble). Mortar and plaster matrices comprising aggregates and binders were examined separately. The binders found in the samples were either lime or lime with gypsum or cement. Evidence seems to indicate that in mortars with original properties, the binder contained lime and gypsum together, while in the repair mortars and plasters, binders also contained cement. Some of the mortar samples, namely AYM-H9 and AYM-H10, contained about 1% tow of such as plants, hays etc. in the aggregate. Brick crumbs were found about 3% to 80% in most of the samples. Two tile samples (AYM-C1 and AYM-C2) were examined for their thin section analysis and it was seen that their fabrics were different. Tile sample AYM-C1, similar to AYM-B7, was fired at 900-950oC and contained 1.5% porosity, while tile sample AYM-C2 was fired at a lower temperature (900oC) as suggested from its highly porous (15%) structure. The glaze of the tile samples has a thickness varying from 300 to 700 μm. The matrix of AYM-C1 has a broken, angular texture, with grains of 0.1 - 500 μm. It is composed of aggregates and minerals with substantial heterogeneous distribution. The matrix of AYM-C2 has coarser grains but fewer aggregates. The basic elementary contents of the glaze samples are similar to each other. In the petrographical thin section analysis, unsuitable mortar and plaster repairs containing cement as binder were identified. The two tile samples examined were found to be similar in character to other building tiles of the same period. It showed that a certain tile production technology in building Seljuk monuments might be employed all over Anatolia. Micro-climatic examination revealed a problem with dampness in the ground beneath the minaret. The Yivli Minare is an indispensable part of Antalya’s identity. The archaeometrical data from the study are necessary for appropriate repair work enabling the Yivli Minare to be passed to next generations. According to data resulting from this study, materials to be used – if necessary – must be compatible with original construction materials.


Cult buildings in aceramic neolithic Southeast Anatolia: a case study of Nevali Çori
Şentek, Mina; Summers, Geoffrey; Department of Settlement Archaeology (2005)
First settlements in Southeast Anatolia begun to appear as early as 10000 BC. Among all the unanswered questions about this early period, cult-related activities and cult buildings are widely studied due to their nature, which has strong connections with the social organization and early symbolism. During the last decade, Southeast Anatolia has provided new evidence for this early stage of development in human history. This study aims to examine cult buildings that have common characteristics; how they were...
The 19th century olive oil industry in Ayvalik and its impact on the settlement pattern
Terzi, Esra; Erciyas, Deniz Burcu; Department of Settlement Archaeology (2007)
Ayvalık which is located on the Aegean coast of the West Anatolia made its main breakthrough in the 19th century and owe this development to olive oil production which was the main economic input of the settlement since the establishment of Ayvalık. Ayvalık was within the hinterland of İzmir which was gained importance as a regional trade centre in the 19th century. Thus, Ayvalık found the way to improve its trade relations in an international level and eventually increase its olive oil production volume du...
Studies in architecture and reconstruction of udabno III-house D
Yarma, Özgecan; Bertram, Jan Krzysztof; Department of Settlement Archaeology (2009)
The Udabno Project is an archaeological fieldwork in Eastern Georgia which includes three settlements from ca. 11th \10th century BC (Udabno I, II and III). The project aims to provide information about the settlement of this period of time. Extensive surveys including geomagnetic prospection took place before the excavations and these are all reveal proto-urban settlement structures. In this project, one of the most important investigations is the pit dwellings, which are located in the middle of the settl...
The display of hekatomnid power in karian settlements through urban imagery
Üzel, Ayça; Güven, Suna Naziyet; Department of Settlement Archaeology (2007)
This thesis focuses on a distinctive period in Karian history marked by the Hekatomnid dynasty in the 4th century BC. The basic question is the ways in which the Hekatomnid power was reflected in the Karian settlement practices and urban imagery. In this regard Maussollos, the most well-known member of the Hekatomnid dynasty, and his policies, including vast building projects and synoikismoi activities, are important indicators in giving a hint on Karian political praxis for the solution of conjectural prob...
A Proposal for the preservation and integrated presentation of archaeological and natural resources in the case of METU Campus area
Bağcı, Latife Sema; Bertram, Jan Krzysztof; İlgezdi Bertram, Gülçin; Department of Settlement Archaeology (2010)
The subject of presentation of archaeological resources is still a developing concept in Turkey. The concepts of educational value and concern, needs a more common recognition and more practice in this context. The same statement goes for the management of natural resources. However, proper public presentation of archaeological and natural resources and public education in those is crucial for the protection of these resources. Moreover, an integrated presentation, approaching the archaeological resources w...
Citation Formats
A. A. Akyol, Y. K. KADIOĞLU, and Ş. Demirci, “Archaeometric Studies at Yivli Minare in Antalya,” ADALYA, pp. 417–431, 2010, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: