Novel Fluorescent Azacyanine Compounds: Improved Synthesis and Optical Properties

Benzothiazoles are known to possess a number of biological activities and therefore are considered to be an important scaffold in the design and synthesis of pharmacophores. In this study, an improved synthesis method for novel fluorescent benzothiazole-based cyclic azacyanine (CAC) dyes bearing different electron-donating/withdrawing groups on their scaffold is presented. The improved method enabled us to increase the synthesis yield for the previously reported CACs. More importantly, it allowed us to synthesize new CAC dyes that were not synthesizable with the previously reported method. The synthesized dyes were characterized by H-1 and C-13 NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and mass spectrometry and their optical (absorption and fluorescence) properties were investigated. All of the synthesized CACs were found to be displaying strong absorption within the range of 387-407 nm. The spectral shifts observed in the absorption and fluorescence measurements suggested that the spectroscopic and optical properties of CACs can be directly modulated by the nature of the electron-donating/withdrawing substituents. The fluorescence quantum yields (QYs) of the unsubstituted (parent CAC) and substituted CACs were also measured and compared. The fluorescence QY of CACs with electron-donating substituents (methoxy or ethoxy) was found to be at least four times higher than that of the parent CAC with no substitutions.


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Citation Formats
K. Doğan, M. Forough, and Ö. Persil Çetinkol, “Novel Fluorescent Azacyanine Compounds: Improved Synthesis and Optical Properties,” ACS OMEGA, pp. 22874–22882, 2020, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: