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From nature to production and commerce: Spatial transformation of Bursa in the late Ottoman period

Aslan , Saliha
The process of modernization realized in industrial, agricultural and commercial developments intensified in the Ottoman city of Bursa by reforms, regulations, and constructions driven by state interventions, foreign investments, and local entrepreneurs in the nineteenth century. The spatial transformation of Bursa was intertwined with this process under the umbrella term of urban economy. The advent of technology and new methods of production necessitated the import of new technological equipment and the export of raw materials. This also led to the construction of new buildings of industry, agriculture, transportation, and commerce as well as advanced infrastructure. These constructions realized by using natural sources such as land, sea, streams, mountains, and mulberry groves as well as technology, and by mitigating the negative aspects of natural disasters, contributed to spatial transformation in and around Bursa. The study explores how the settlements economically and spatially expanded across the close periphery and the larger hinterlands of Bursa and reached its edges that were integrated with the urban core through the construction of buildings and infrastructure. The city, thus, transformed into a more productive and commercial city while also being transformed spatially. The study aims to discuss how the changing means of industrial and agricultural production, accompanied by changing means of transportation and commerce, formed consequent spatial transformation in Bursa during the late Ottoman period in relation to the city’s specifies.