Archaeometric studies on selected samples of human bones excavated from the ruins of the roman amphitheatre in İznik

Aksoy, Uğur Bülent
In this study, major, minor, and trace elements were analysed in 21 bones belonging to 19 individuals with different sex, age, and location excavated from the Roman Theatre in İznik. Additionally, five soil samples taken from different parts of the site were analysed with applied chemical and physical analysis using archaeometric methods to determine and investigate the implication of toxic elements (Pb, As, Cd, etc.), and their accumulation in bone hydroxyapatite due to diagenic and/or biogenic basis.The elemental composition of the İznik bones were determined using both XRF (Xray fluorescence spectrometry) and ICP-OES (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry) methods, simultaneously. One of the soil samples and four of the bone samples were analyzed by Ultra Trace Aqua Regia ICP-MS to obtain a control group. Before the elemental analysis, the organic phase of the bone matrix was removed and the analysis was based solely on bone hydroxyapatite. Cortical bones (femora) and trabecular bones (costa) were examined separately. The elemental analysis focused on the matrix elements of Ca and P, diagenetic related elements Mn, Fe, K, Pb, Al, U, Zr, and Y, and dietary elements Zn, Ba, Mg and Sr. To define uncontaminated bone matrix, the Ca/P mass ratio in the crystal structure of bone hydroxyapatite was calculated.To obtain diagenetic implication in the surrounding soil of the burial, electrical conductivity, hydrogen-ion activity, and soil type analysis were performed. Furthermore, diagenetic alteration of bone apatite was physically tested, due to the changes of porosity and recrystallization, by using FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) spectroscopy and porosity measurements. The results were evaluated with principal component analysis (PCA). In the correlation matrix, the diagenetic effects of different elements on the bone samples was determined statistically.


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In this study, two sample sets from Zeugma Archaeological Area had been examined. The sample Set I includes 7 sediment, 18 stone, 4 brick/roof tile, 9 mortar, 4 plaster samples and the sample Set II consists of 24 mural painting samples. Samples were examined to get their raw material characteristics, mineralogical and chemical compositions, and microstructural properties using various analytical techniques such as Optical Microscopy, XRD, FTIR, PED-XRF, SEM-EDX and Raman Spectroscopy. In addition, mikrocli...
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This study investigates the petrographical and chemical characteristics of a group of Zeuxippus Ware Related Ceramics dating to the late 12th-13th centuries from Kuşadası Kadıkalesi/Anaia. Kadıkalesi was a Byzantine fortress at the coast of Aegean Sea. It was also a significant commercial port and an episcopacy center during the 13th century. In this study, visual classifications of the ceramics were carried out based on their stylistic properties. Then, ceramic samples were investigated by several methods ...
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Archaeometry, the collaboration of different disciplines with archaeology, has revealed some facts that could change our understanding of the past. Provenance studies should be among the primary topics in interdisciplinary archaeometric reseach. Provenance studies, determining the source of the archaeological materials, play an important role in the understanding and reconstruction of trade connections, and social, political and religious relationships of ancient societies. A group of limestone figurines da...
Citation Formats
U. B. Aksoy, “Archaeometric studies on selected samples of human bones excavated from the ruins of the roman amphitheatre in İznik,” Ph.D. - Doctoral Program, Middle East Technical University, 2020.