Adaptation and validation of the sustainability consciousness questionnaire for teacher candidates

Güler, Fulden
Şen, Mehmet
Özdemir, Mine
Öztekin, Ceren
There are several problems encountered in developing countries such as rapid population growth, deforestation, urbanization and these problems lead to consumption of natural resources (UNESCO, 2006). The term sustainable development (SD) is highlighted in the last decades to deal with the problems of the globalized world. One of the earlier studies, Brundtland Report (WCET, 1987) defined SD as “development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. However, it is criticized that this definition is very comprehensive and people might not be aware of their individual responsibilities for a sustainable future based upon the broad definition (Sandell, Öhman, Östman, Billingham & Lindman, 2005). Moreover, another critique advocates that the definition gives more emphasis to human perspective of SD making it anthropocentric (Lee, 2000). Therefore, integrated nature of SD that includes environmental, economic and social aspects has become crucial lately. (Giddings, Hopwood, & O’Brien, 2002) and these aspects were described in the framework suggested by UNESCO (2006). Although the importance of integrating these three aspects is highlighted, the literature reveals that there is a tendency for concentrating more on the environmental aspects rather than taking SD as a whole (Olsson & Gericke, 2016) and economic and social aspects were generally ignored in the studies (Pappas, Pierrakos & Nagel, 2013). The need for comprehensive and inclusive approach towards SD is emphasized by Olsson, Gericke and Rundgren (2016) and they prefer to use the term “sustainability consciousness” to fulfill this need. Researchers define sustainability consciousness as “concept that integrates the environmental, social and economic dimensions of SD. Moreover, there are aspects that elucidate sustainability knowingness, attitudes and behavior in each of these three dimensions” (p. 183). This approach was utilized in the present study which was developed in accordance with the SD aspects defined by UNESCO (2006). There are several instruments available in the environmental education literature that approaches the issue from different perspectives. Bogner and Wiseman (2006) developed an instrument that aims to examine environmental attitudes of individuals comprising of two dimensions: utilization and preservation. Other widely used instrument, New Environmental Paradigm Scale, is used to uncover individuals’ environmental attitudes (Dunlap, Van Liere, Mertig & Jones, 2002). However, these instruments were concentrated on environmental dimension rather than having broader approach towards SD. Parallel with the international literature, instruments found in the Turkish literature generally focus on the one aspect of SD. To illustrate, Güven and Aydoğdu (2012) developed an instrument to measure pre-service science teachers’ consciousness about environmental problems. On the other hand, Doğru et al. (2015) designed an instrument to determine pre-service teachers’ attitude towards social dimension of SD. From this point of view, the purpose of the study is to adapt “Sustainability Conscious” questionnaire into Turkish and examine the validity and reliability evidences for assessing teacher candidates’ sustainability consciousness level. The study is considered as significant since the instrument takes more comprehensive and inclusive approach towards Sustainability Conscious in line with the UNESCO Framework (2006; 2009) which is rare in the literature. Moreover, Olsson and Gericke (2016) used the present questionnaire in Sweden context and suggested using it in different cultural contexts. The present study attempted to contribute to the literature by adapting it into Turkish context.
European Educational Research Association (2018)


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Citation Formats
F. Güler, M. Şen, M. Özdemir, and C. Öztekin, “Adaptation and validation of the sustainability consciousness questionnaire for teacher candidates,” Bolzano, İtalya, 2018, p. 1, Accessed: 00, 2021. [Online]. Available: