Simulation of Deformation and Residual Stress Evolution during Quenching and Tempering of Tool Steel

Şimşir, Caner
Eser, A
Bezold, A
Broeckmann , C
Bambauer , K
The objective of this finite element simulation study is to predict deformations and residual stresses in the carbide rich cold work tool steel X220CrVMo13-4 after tempering. A thermo-metallurgical-mechanical model with experimentally determined phase transformation kinetics and phase dependent material properties is implemented to simulate the quenching and tempering cycles. Considering the transformation of retained austenite during tempering, high alloyed tool steels behave differently compared to most other ferritic or martensitic steels. For the steel under consideration, retained austenite remains stable up to higher temperatures (≈ 600 °C) and decomposes during cooling from tempering temperature. The transformation kinetics of this steel during tempering is investigated by dilatometer and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements. In order to achieve the mechanical properties of each phase that appears during tempering, compression tests have been conducted for several temperatures and phase compositions respectively. Eventually, the experimentally determined phase transformation kinetics of tempering as well as phase and temperature dependent material properties were implemented into the finite element analysis software Sysweld®. In order to verify the model, a specimen, hardened and tempered in a dilatometer has been modeled. The comparison of experimental and numerical results shows quite good agreement. Finally stress and deformation evolution during quenching and tempering have been simulated for a component with practical relevance.
Citation Formats
C. Şimşir, A. Eser, A. Bezold, C. Broeckmann, and K. Bambauer, “Simulation of Deformation and Residual Stress Evolution during Quenching and Tempering of Tool Steel,” Wels, Avusturya, 2011, p. 33, Accessed: 00, 2021. [Online]. Available: