Archaeogenomic analysis of population genetic relationships and kinship patterns in the sedentary societies from neolithic anatolia

Yaka, Reyhan
The Neolithic way of life first emerged in the Fertile Crescent (c.10thand early 9thmillennium cal BCE) and quickly spread to neighbouring regionssuch as Central Anatoliaand Cyprus,and eventually further westwards. This transition involved to fundamental changes in human lifestyle,with the first emergence of villages during the early Neolithicandthe later the growing reliance on farming and herdingduring the late Neolithic periods. Changes in the social organization of sedentary communitiesare also hypothesized to have occurred during this period, includingchanges between early and late Neolithicperiods. Central Anatolia was one of the major regions where these developments took place. Like other regions of early Neolithization, it shows distinctive traditionsin the early and late Neolithic settlementsin the region. Earlier studies based on small sample sizes from Central Anatoliaanalyzed genetic relationships amongtheNeolithic populations in the region. In this study, for the first time, we investigatedancient genomes from Aşıklı Höyük and Çatalhöyük from Central Anatolia, representing early (Aceramic)and late (Ceramic) Neolithic, respectively. We vigenerateda total of 22 genomesfromAşıklı (n=8) and Çatalhöyük (n=14), and combined these with published genomesfrom other Anatolian Neolithic sites(Boncuklu, Barcın and Tepecik-Çiftlik). We first investigatedgenetic relationships among Anatolian Neolithic groups at both individual-and population-level. We found strong genetic affinity between Aceramic Aşıklı and Boncuklu, supporting the notion thatthese early Neolithic populationsfrom Central Anatoliamay have been part of the same gene pool.Likewise, we observed genetic affinity between Çatalhöyük and other Anatolian CeramicNeolithic populations (Barcın and Tepecik-Çiftlik). In addition, we identifiedhigher within-population genetic diversityin the Anatolian Ceramic Neolithicpopulations (Çatalhöyük, Barcın and Tepecik-Çiftlik) compared to those of Aceramic Neolithic (Boncuklu and Aşıklı).Further, our findingsbased on a larger sample sizesupportedthe notion of a possible gene flow from Levant and Iran to Anatoliaduring the transition from Aceramic to Ceramic Neolithic period, after c.7,500BCE.Next, we studiedgenetic kinship among individuals co-buried within the same structures withinAceramic and Ceramic Neolithic settlements from bothCentral and Northwest Anatolia,to understand social structuresof Neolithicsocieties inthe earlier and later period of Neolithic lifein Anatolia. In the two AceramicNeolithic societies from Central Anatolia, Aşıklı and Boncuklu,we identified close genetic kin-relationships (e.g., first-degree) among co-burials at a high frequency,while the frequency of genetically close relatives was lower among co-buried individuals in Çatalhöyük and Barcın, which representCeramicNeolithic societies fromCentral and Northwest Anatolia, respectively. Our findings supported the notionthat genetickinship patterns among co-buried individuals,who could represent households,might have changed over time during the transition from Aceramic to Ceramic Neolithic in Anatolia.


Archaeogenomic analysis of the first steps of Neolithization in Anatolia and the Aegean
Kilinc, Gulsah Merve; KOPTEKIN, Dilek; Atakuman, Çiğdem; SUMER, Arev Pelin; DONERTAS, Handan Melike; YAKA, Reyhan; Bilgin, Cemal Can; BÜYÜKKARAKAYA, ALİ METİN; Baird, Douglas; ALTINISIK, Ezgi; FLEGONTOV, Pavel; Gotherstrom, Anders; TOGAN, Inci; Somel, Mehmet (2017-11-29)
The Neolithic transition in west Eurasia occurred in two main steps: the gradual development of sedentism and plant cultivation in the Near East and the subsequent spread of Neolithic cultures into the Aegean and across Europe after 7000 cal BCE. Here, we use published ancient genomes to investigate gene flow events in west Eurasia during the Neolithic transition. We confirm that the Early Neolithic central Anatolians in the ninth millennium BCE were probably descendants of local hunter-gatherers, rather th...
Exploring the evolutionary history of Anatolian neolithic sheep using modern and ancient genomics
Yurtman, Erinç; Somel, Mehmet; Department of Biology (2019)
The transition from hunting-gathering to sedentism happened in West Asia in the early Holocene, eventually giving way to the establishment of agriculture and livestock breeding. In this process, domestication of wild animals played crucial role for human settlements. The domestication center of sheep, among the main four livestock species, is thought to have been within Anatolia. Previous archaeozoological studies also suggested that after domestication this species migrated with human populations to other ...
Archaeogenomic analysis of genetic and cultural interactions in Neolithic Anatolian societies (NEOGENE)
Somel, Mehmet; Atakuman, Çiğdem; Sürer, Elif(2023)
The Neolithic Transition in the Near East (c.10,000-6,000 BC) was a period of singular sociocultural change, when societies adopted sedentary life and agriculture for the first time in human history. This project will jointly use genomic and quantitative cultural data to explore Transition societies’ organisation, interactions, and their social and demographic evolution in time. (1) We will start by dissecting social structures within Neolithic communities in Anatolia, studying the role of kinship, postmari...
Variable kinship patterns in Neolithic Anatolia revealed by ancient genomes
Yaka, Reyhan; et. al. (2021-06-01)
The social organization of the first fully sedentary societies that emerged during the Neolithic period in Southwest Asia remains enigmatic,1 mainly because material culture studies provide limited insight into this issue. However, because Neolithic Anatolian communities often buried their dead beneath domestic buildings,2 household composition and social structure can be studied through these human remains. Here, we describe genetic relatedness among co-burials associated with domestic buildings in Neolith...
Ancient genomics in Neolithic Central Anatolia and Çatalhöyük
Yaka, Reyhan; Doğu, Ayça; Kaptan, Damla; Dağtaş, Nihan Dilşad; Chyleński, Maciej; Vural, Kıvılcım Başak; Altınışık, Nefize Ezgi; Mapelli, Igor; Koptekin, Dilek; Karamurat, Cansu; Gemici, Hasan Can; Yorulmaz, Sevgi; Lagerholm, Vendela Kempe; Fer, Evrim; Işıldak, Ulaş; Ghalichi, Ayshin; Kılınç, Gülşah Merve; Mazzucato, Camilla; Juras, Anna; Marciniak, Arkadiusz; Larsen, Clark S.; Pilloud, Marin; Haddow, Scott D.; Knüsel, Christopher J.; Togan, İnci; Götherström, Anders; Erdal, Yılmaz Selim; Sürer, Elif; Özer, Füsun; Atakuman, Çiğdem; Somel, Mehmet (British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara, 2021-01-01)
Over multiple millennia, from the earliest traces of long-term occupation of camp sites (ca 20,000 BC) to the development of full-scale farming (ca 8000–6000 BC), the Neolithic transition in southwest Asia gradually shaped human societies in dramatic ways (Nadel 2002; Maher et al. 2012; Asouti, Fuller 2013). Here we present recent insights from ancient genomics studies into these societies while focusing on two questions: the population processes driving cultural change in Neolithic central Anatolia and gen...
Citation Formats
R. Yaka, “Archaeogenomic analysis of population genetic relationships and kinship patterns in the sedentary societies from neolithic anatolia,” Ph.D. - Doctoral Program, Middle East Technical University, 2020.